• grey seal;
  • microsatellites;
  • paternity analysis;
  • Pinniped;
  • reproductive success


Microsatellites were used to conduct an extensive analysis of paternity of grey seals from two Scottish breeding colonies at North Rona (n = 1189) and the Isle of May (n = 694), spanning more than a decade. A maximum of 46% of pups at North Rona and 29% of pups at the Isle of May could be allocated a father, even though the majority of candidate males for specific study sites within each colony were believed to have been sampled. Based on the paternities which could be assigned, both colonies showed evidence of reproductive skew, apparently due to the presence of approximately five males who were exceptionally successful. Some males were assigned paternities at least 10 years before, and colleagues 10 years after, being sampled, implying a reproductive lifespan of at least 10 years, and there are indications that the real maximum lies in the range 15–20 years. Male grey seals appear to have at least two breeding strategies they can adopt. On land, some males benefit from a traditionally polygynous system. However, between 50 and 70% of grey seal pups born at a particular colony are not fathered by males who are likely to be sampled by us, implying that these males seldom venture ashore here. We conclude that aquatic mating may play a much larger role in the grey seal than has previously been thought.