The bast scale Matsucoccus feytaudi is a specific pest of maritime pine, but the damage inflicted by the insect on the host trees is variable, ranging from no apparent effect to severe decline of the maritime pine stands. Rangewide variation of mitochondrial DNA among M. feytaudi populations was analysed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR–RFLP–SSCP) analysis and the results compared with the genetic information already available for its host. Three main nonoverlapping lineages can be distinguished in M. feytaudi. The phylogeography of the pest population is clearly related to the history of its host. Most local associations could result from common evolution while others must be interpreted as intraspecific host shifts. Because the distribution of cultivated tree species is greatly influenced by humans, much may be learned concerning their genetic structure from the indirect study of their specific pests.