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Phylogeography of the pitviper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, species status, and conservation of cantils

Authors

  • Christopher L. Parkinson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biology, 1001 E. Third St., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA,
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  • Kelly R. Zamudio,

    1. Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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    • Present address: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-2701, USA.

  • Harry W. Greene

    1. Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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    • Present address: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-2701, USA.


Christopher L. Parkinson. Fax: +812-855-6705; E-mail: cparkins@bio.indiana.edu

Abstract

We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from three gene regions and two tRNAs (ND4, tRNA-HIS-SER, 12S, and 16S rDNA) to investigate the historical ecology of the New World pitviper clade Agkistrodon, with emphasis on the disjunct subspecies of the cantil, A. bilineatus. We found strong evidence that the copperhead (A. contortrix) is basal to its congeners, and that the cottonmouth (A. piscivorus) is basal to cantils. Phylogeography and natural history of the living terminal taxa imply that Agkistrodon primitively occupied relatively temperate habitats, with subsequent evolution of tropicality in ancestral A. bilineatus. Our best supported phylogeny rejects three gulf arc scenarios for the biogeography of A. bilineatus. We find significant statistical support for an initial divergence between populations on the east and west coasts of México and subsequent occupancy of the Yucatán Peninsula, by way of subhumid corridors in northern Central America. Based on phylogenetic relationships, morphological and molecular divergence, and allopatry we elevate A. b. taylori of northeastern México to species status. Taylor’s cantil is likely threatened by habitat destruction and small geographical range, and we offer recommendations for its conservation and management.

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