Extracellular Yersinia disarm the immune system of their host by injecting effector Yop proteins into the cytosol of target cells. Five effectors have been described: YopE, YopH, YpkA/YopO, YopP and YopM. Delivery of these effectors by Yersinia adhering at the cell surface requires other Yops (translocators) including YopB. Effector and translocator Yops are secreted by the type III Ysc secretion apparatus, and some Yops also need a specific cytosolic chaperone, called Syc. In this paper, we describe a new Yop, which we have called YopT (35.5 kDa). Its secretion required an intact Ysc apparatus and SycT (15.0 kDa, pI 4.4), a new chaperone resembling SycE. Infection of macrophages with a Yersinia, producing a hybrid YopT–adenylate cyclase, led to the accumulation of intracellular cAMP, indicating that YopT is delivered into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Infection of HeLa cells with a mutant strain devoid of the five known Yop effectors (ΔHOPEM strain) but producing YopT resulted in the alteration of the cell cytoskeleton and the disruption of the actin filament structure. This cytotoxic effect was caused by YopT and dependent on YopB. YopT is thus a new effector Yop and a new bacterial toxin affecting the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells.