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Chromosome dimers, formed by homologous recombination between sister chromosomes, normally require cell division to be resolved into monomers by site-specific recombination at the dif locus of Escherichia coli. We report here that it is not in fact cell division per se that is required for dimer resolution but the action of the cytoplasmic domain of FtsK, which is a bifunctional protein required both for cell division and for chromosome partition.