• 1
    Bauer, K., Struyve, M., Bosch, D., Benz, R., Tommassen, J. (1989) One single lysine residue is responsible for the special interaction between polyphosphate and the outer membrane porin pho-e of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 264: 1639316398.
  • 2
    Benson, S.A., Occi, J.L.L., Sampson, B.A. (1988) Mutations that alter the pore function of the ompf porin of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol 203: 961970.
  • 3
    Benz, R., Ghuysen, J.M., Hakenbeck, R. (1995) Uptake of solutes through bacterial outer membranes. In Bacterial Cell Wall. Ghuysen, J., and Hakenbeck, R. (eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 397423.
  • 4
    Bjerknes, R., Guttormsen, H., Solberg, C.O., Wetzler, L.M. (1995) Neisserial porins inhibit human neutrophil actin polymerization, degranulation, opsonin receptor expression, and phagocytosis but prime the neutrophils to increase their oxidative burst. Infect Immun 63: 160167.
  • 5
    Blake, M.S. & Gotschlich, E.C. (1987) Functional and immunogenic properties of pathogenic Neisseria surface proteins. In Bacterial Outer Membranes as Model Systems. Inouye, M. (ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 377400.
  • 6
    Bos, M.P., Grunert, F., Belland, R.J. (1997) Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Opa variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun 65: 23532361.
  • 7
    Carbonetti, N.H., Simnad, V.I., Seifert, H.S., So, M., Sparling, P.F. (1988) Genetics of protein i of Neisseria gonorrhoeae construction of hybrid porins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 68416845.
  • 8
    Carbonetti, N., Simnad, V., Elkins, C., Sparling, P.F. (1990) Construction of isogenic gonococci with variable porin structure: effects on susceptibility to human serum and antibiotics. Mol Microbiol 4: 10091018.
  • 9
    Chen, T. & Gotschlich, E.C. (1996) CGM1a antigen of neutrophils, a receptor of gonococcal opacity proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 1485114856.
  • 10
    Chen, T., Belland, R.J., Wilson, J., Swanson, J. (1995) Adherence of pilus Opa+ gonococci to epithelial cells in vitro involves heparan sulfate. J Exp Med 182: 511517.
  • 11
    Cowan, S.W., Schirmer, T., Rummel, G., Steiert, M., Ghosh, R., Pauptit, R.A., et al (1992) Crystal structures explain functional properties of two Escherichia coli porins. Nature 358: 727733.
  • 12
    Dehio, C., Gray-Owen, S.D., Meyer, T.F. (1998a) The role of neisserial Opa proteins in interactions with host cells. Trends Microbiol 6: 489495.
  • 13
    Dehio, M., Gomez Duarte, O.G., Dehio, C., Meyer, T.F. (1998b) Vitronectin-dependent invasion of epithelial cells by Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves αv integrin receptors. FEBS Lett 424: 8488.
  • 14
    Duensing, T.D. & Van Putten, J.P.M. (1997) Vitronectin mediates internalization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Chinese hamster ovary cells. Infect Immun 65: 964970.
  • 15
    Edwards, S.W. (1987) Luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils: role of degranulation. J Clin Lab Immunol 22: 3539.
  • 16
    Elkins, C., Thomas, C.E., Seifert, H.S., Sparling, P.F. (1991) Species-specific uptake of DNA by gonococci is mediated by a 10-base-pair sequence. J Bacteriol 173: 39113913.
  • 17
    Faulkner, K. & Fridovich, I. (1993) Luminol and lucigenin as detectors for superoxide. Free Radical Biol Med 15: 447451.
  • 18
    Fourel, D., Bernadac, A., Pages, J.M. (1994) Involvement of exposed polypeptide loops in trimeric stability and membrane insertion of Escherichia coli OmpF porin. Eur J Biochem 222: 625630.
  • 19
    Fussenegger, M., Kahrs, A.F., Facius, D., Meyer, T.F. (1996a) Tetrapac (tpc), a novel genotype of Neisseria gonorrhoeae affecting epithelial cell invasion, natural transformation competence and cell separation. Mol Microbiol 19: 13571372.
  • 20
    Fussenegger, M., Facius, D., Meier, J., Meyer, T.F. (1996b) A novel peptidoglycan-linked lipoprotein (ComL) that functions in natural transformation competence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol Microbiol 19: 10951105.
  • 21
    Gomez-Duarte, O.G., Dehio, M., Guzman, C.A., Chhatwal, G.S., Dehio, C., Meyer, T.F. (1997) Binding of vitronectin to Opa-expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediates invasion of HeLa cells. Infect Immun 65: 38573866.
  • 22
    Grassmé, H.U., Ireland, R.M., Van Putten, J.P. (1996) Gonococcal opacity protein promotes bacterial entry-associated rearrangements of the epithelial cell actin cytoskeleton. Infect Immun 64: 16211630.
  • 23
    Grassmé, H., Gulbins, E., Brenner, B., Ferlinz, K., Sandhoff, K., Harzer, K., et al (1997) Acidic sphingomyelinase mediates entry of N. gonorrhoeae into nonphagocytic cells. Cell 91: 605615.
  • 24
    Gray-Owen, S.D., Dehio, C., Haude, A., Grunert, F., Meyer, T.F. (1997a) CD66 carcinoembryonic antigens mediate interactions between Opa- expressing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human polymorphonuclear phagocytes. EMBO J 16: 34353445.
  • 25
    Gray-Owen, S.D., Lorenzen, D.R., Haude, A., Meyer, T.F., Dehio, C. (1997b) Differential Opa specificities for CD66 receptors influence tissue interactions and cellular response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol Microbiol 26: 971980.
  • 26
    Haas, R., Kahrs, A.F., Facius, D., Allmeier, H., Schmitt, R., Meyer, T.F. (1993) TnMax — a versatile mini-transposon for the analysis of cloned genes and shuttle mutagenesis. Gene 130: 2331.
  • 27
    Haines, K.A., Yeh, L., Blake, M.S., Cristello, P., Korchak, H., Weissmann, G. (1988) Protein I, a translocatable ion channel from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, selectively inhibits exocytosis from human neutrophils without inhibiting O2-generation. J Biol Chem 263: 945951.
  • 28
    Haines, K.A., Reibman, J., Tang, X.Y., Blake, M., Weissmann, G. (1991) Effects of protein I of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on neutrophil activation: generation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidylcholine via a specific phospholipase C is associated with exocytosis. J Cell Biol 114: 433442.
  • 29
    Hauck, C.R. & Meyer, T.F. (1997) The lysosomal/phagosomal membrane protein h-lamp-1 is a target of the IgA1 protease of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. FEBS Lett 405: 8690.
  • 30
    Higuchi, R., Krummel, B., Saiki, R.K. (1988) A general method of in vitro preparation and specific mutagenesis of DNA fragments: study of protein and DNA interactions. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 73517367.
  • 31
    Hitchcock, P.J. (1989) Unified nomenclature for pathogenic Neisseria species. Clin Microbiol Rev 2 3: S64S65.
  • 32
    Ho, S.N., Hunt, H.D., Horton, R.M., Pullen, J.K., Pease, L.R. (1989) Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension using the polymerase chain reaction. Gene 77: 5159.
  • 33
    Jeanteur, D., Lakey, J.H., Pattus, F. (1991) The bacterial porin superfamily: sequence alignment and structure prediction. Mol Microbiol 5: 21532164.
  • 34
    Jeanteur, D., Lakey, J.H., Pattus, F. (1995) The porin superfamily: diversity and common features. In Bacterial Cell Wall. Ghuysen, J., and Hakenbeck, R. (eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 363380.
  • 35
    Jerse, A.E. & Rest, R.F. (1997) Adhesion and invasion by the pathogenic neisseria. Trends Microbiol 5: 217221.
  • 36
    Kahrs, A.F., Bihlmaier, A., Facius, D., Meyer, T.F. (1994) Generalized transposon shuttle mutagenesis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a method for isolating epithelial cell invasion- defective mutants. Mol Microbiol 12: 819831.
  • 37
    Kellogg, D.S., Cohen, I.R., Norins, L.C., Schoeter, A.L., Reising, G. (1968) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. II. Colonial variation and pathogenicity during 35 month in vitro. J Bacteriol 96: 596605.
  • 38
    Klebba, P.E., Hofnung, M., Charbit, A. (1994) A model of maltodextrin transport though the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis. EMBO J 13: 46704675.
  • 39
    Kupsch, E.M., Aubel, D., Gibbs, C.P., Kahrs, A.F., Rudel, T., Meyer, T.F. (1996) Construction of Hermes shuttle vectors: a versatile system useful for genetic complementation of transformable and non-transformable Neisseria mutants. Mol Gen Genet 250: 558569.
  • 40
    Kupsch, E.M., Knepper, B., Kuroki, T., Heuer, I., Meyer, T.F. (1993) Variable opacity (Opa) outer membrane proteins account for the cell tropisms displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae for human leukocytes and epithelial cells. EMBO J 12: 641650.
  • 41
    Van Der Ley, P., Heckels, J.E., Virji, M., Hoogerhout, P., Poolman, J.T. (1991) Topology of outer membrane porins in pathogenic Neisseria spp. Infect Immun 59: 29632971.
  • 42
    Lynch, E.C., Blake, M.S., Gotschlich, E.C., Mauro, A. (1984) Studies on porins spontaneously transferred from whole cells and from proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. Biophys J 45: 104107.
  • 43
    McGee, Z.A., Johnson, A.P., Taylor-Robinson, D. (1981) Pathogenic mechanisms of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: observations on damage to human fallopian tubes in organ culture by gonococci of colony type 1 or type 4. J Infect Dis 143: 413422.
  • 44
    Makino, S., Van Putten, J.P., Meyer, T.F. (1991) Phase variation of the opacity outer membrane protein controls invasion by Neisseria gonorrhoeae into human epithelial cells. EMBO J 10: 13071315.
  • 45
    Marsh, J.L., Erfle, M., Wykes, E.J. (1984) The pIC plasmid and phage vectors with versatile cloning sites for recombinant selection by insertional inactivation. Gene 32: 481485.
  • 46
    Meyer, T.F., Mlawer, N., So, M. (1982) Pilus expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae involves chromosomal rearrangement. Cell 30: 4552.
  • 47
    Mosleh, I.M., Huber, L.A., Steinlein, P., Pasquali, C., Günther, D., Meyer, T.F. (1998) Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin modulates phagosome maturation. J Biol Chem 237: 3533235338.
  • 48
    Müller, A., Günther, D., Düx, F., Naumann, M., Meyer, T.F., Rudel, T. (1999) Neisserial porin (PorB) causes rapid calcium influx in target cells and induces apoptosis by the activation of cysteine proteases. EMBO J 18: (in press).
  • 49
    Nikaido, H. (1994) Porins and specific diffusion channels in bacterial outer membranes. J Biol Chem 269: 39053908.
  • 50
    Projan, S.J., Monod, M., Narayanan, C.S., Dubnau, D. (1987) Replication properties of pIM13, a naturally occurring plasmid found in Bacillus subtilis, and of its close relative pE5, a plasmid native to Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 169: 51315139.
  • 51
    Van Putten, J.P. & Paul, S.M. (1995) Binding of syndecan-like cell surface proteoglycan receptors is required for Neisseria gonorrhoeae entry into human mucosal cells. EMBO J 14: 21442154.
  • 52
    Van Putten, J.P.M., Duensing, T.D., Carlson, J. (1998) Gonococcal invasion of epithelial cells driven by P.IA, a bacterial ion channel with GTP binding properties. J Exp Med 188: 941952.
  • 53
    Rocque, W.J. & McGroarty, E.J. (1990) Structure and function of an OmpC deletion mutant porin from Escherichia coli K-12. Biochemistry 29: 53445351.
  • 54
    Rudel, T., Van Putten, J.P.M., Gibbs, C.P., Haas, R., Meyer, T.F. (1992) Interaction of two variable proteins PilE and PilC required for pilus-mediated adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol 6: 34393450.
  • 55
    Rudel, T., Boxberger, H.J., Meyer, T.F. (1995a) Pilus biogenesis and epithelial cell adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilC double knock-out mutants. Mol Microbiol 17: 10571071.
  • 56
    Rudel, T., Scheuerpflug, I., Meyer, T.F. (1995b) Neisseria PilC protein identified as type-4 pilus tip-located adhesin. Nature 373: 357359.
  • 57
    Rudel, T., Schmid, A., Benz, R., Kolb, H.A., Lang, F., Meyer, T.F. (1996) Modulation of Neisseria porin (PorB) by cytosolic ATP/GTP of target cells: parallels between pathogen accommodation and mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Cell 85: 391402.
  • 58
    Schirmer, T., Keller, T.A., Wang, Y.F., Rosenbusch, J.P. (1995) Structural basis for sugar translocation through maltoporin channels at 3.1 Å resolution. Science 267: 512514.
  • 59
    Simon, D. & Rest, R.F. (1992) Escherichia coli expressing a Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity-associated outer membrane protein invade human cervical and endometrial epithelial cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 55125516.
  • 60
    Spence, J.M., Chen, J.C., Clark, V.L. (1997) A proposed role for the lutropin receptor in contact-inducible gonococcal invasion of Hec1B cells. Infect Immun 65: 37363742.
  • 61
    Virji, M., Makepeace, K., Ferguson, D.J.P., Watt, S.M. (1996) Carcinoembryonic antigens (CD66) on epithelial cells and neutrophils are receptors for Opa proteins of pathogenic neisseriae. Mol Microbiol 22: 941950.
  • 62
    Wang, J., Gray-Owen, S.D., Knorre, A., Meyer, T.F., Dehio, C. (1998) Cellular CD66 receptors mediate traversal of polarised T84 epithelial cell monolayers. Mol Microbiol 30: 657671.
  • 63
    Ward, M.J., Lambden, P.R., Heckels, J.E. (1992) Sequence analysis and relationships between meningococcal class 3 serotype proteins and other porins from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Neisseria species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 73: 283289.
  • 64
    Weel, J.F. & Van Putten, J.P. (1991) Fate of the major outer membrane protein P.IA in early and late events of gonococcal infection of epithelial cells. Res Microbiol 142: 985993.
  • 65
    Weel, J.F., Hopman, C.T., Van Putten, J.P. (1991) Bacterial entry and intracellular processing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in epithelial cells: immunomorphological evidence for alterations in the major outer membrane protein P.IB. J Exp Med 174: 705715.
  • 66
    Weiss, M.S. & Schulz, G.E. (1992) Structure of porin refined at 1.8 Å resolution. J Mol Biol 227: 493509.
  • 67
    Weiss, M.S., Abele, U., Weckesser, J., Welte, W., Schiltz, E., Schulz, G.E. (1991) Molecular architecture and electrostatic properties of a bacterial porin. Science 254: 16271630.