• 1
    Abu Kwaik, Y. (1996) The phagosome containing Legionella pneumophila within the protozoan Hartmanella vermiformis is surrounded by the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 20222028.
  • 2
    Albano, M.A., Arroyo, J., Eisenstein, B.I., Engleberg, N.C. (1992) PhoA gene fusions in Legionella pneumophila generated in vivo using a new transposon, MudphoA. Mol Microbiol 6: 18291839.
  • 3
    Anderson, D.M. & Schneewind, O. (1997) A mRNA signal for the type III secretion of Yop proteins by Yersinia enterocolitica. Science 278: 11401143.
  • 4
    Ausubel, F.M., Brent, R.B., Kingston, R.E., Moore, D.D., Seidman, J.G., Smith, J.A., et al (eds) (1987) Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 5
    Baine, W.B. (1985) Cytolytic and phospholipase C activity in Legionella species. J Gen Microbiol 131: 13831391.
  • 6
    Bally, M., Ball, G., Badere, A., Lazdunski, A. (1991) Protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the xcpA gene encodes an integral inner membrane protein homologous to Klebsiella pneumoniae secretion function protein PulO. J Bacteriol 173: 479486.
  • 7
    Bally, M., Filloux, A., Akrim, M., Ball, G., Lazdunski, A., Tommassen, J. (1992) Protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: characterization of seven xcp genes and processing of secretory apparatus components by prepilin peptidase. Mol Microbiol 6: 11211131.
  • 8
    Berger, K.H. & Isberg, R.R. (1993) Two distinct defects in intracellular growth complemented by a single genetic locus in Legionella pneumophila. Mol Microbiol 7: 719.
  • 9
    Black, W.J., Frederick, D.Q., Tompkins, L.S. (1990) Legionella pneumophila zinc metalloprotease is structurally and functionally homologous to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. J Bacteriol 172: 26082613.
  • 10
    Bleves, S., Voulhoux, R., Michel, G., Lazdunskim, A., Tommassen, J., Filloux, A. (1998) The secretion apparatus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of a fifth pseudopilin, XcpX (GspK family). Mol Microbiol 27: 3140.
  • 11
    Cianciotto, N.P. & Fields, B.S. (1992) Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 51885191.
  • 12
    Cianciotto, N.P., Eisenstein, B.I., Mody, C.H., Engleberg, N.C. (1990) A mutation in the mip gene results in an attenuation of Legionella pneumophila virulence. J Infect Dis 162: 121126.
  • 13
    Cianciotto, N.P., Stamos, J.K., Kamp, D.W. (1995) Infectivity of Legionella pneumophila mip mutant for alveolar epithelial cells. Curr Microbiol 30: 247250.
  • 14
    Conlan, J.W., Baskerville, A., Ashworth, L.A.E. (1988) Separation of Legionella pneumophila proteases and purification of a protease which produces lesions like those of Legionnaires' disease in guinea pig lung. J Gen Microbiol 134: 481487.
  • 15
    Dowling, J.N., Saha, A.K., Glew, R.H. (1992) Virulence factors of the family Legionellaceae. Microbiol Rev 56: 3260.
  • 16
    Edelstein, P.H. (1981) Improved semiselective medium for isolation of Legionella pneumophila from contaminated clinical and environmental specimens. J Clin Microbiol 14: 298303.
  • 17
    Edelstein, P.H., Calarco, K., Yasui, V.K. (1984) Antimicrobial therapy of experimentally induced Legionnaires' disease in guinea pigs. Am Rev Resp Dis 130: 849856.
  • 18
    Fields, B.S. (1996) The molecular ecology of legionellae. Trends Microbiol 4: 286290.
  • 19
    Fields, B.S., Barbaree, J.M., Shotts, Jr, E.B., Feeley, J.C., Morrill, W.E., Sanden, G.N., et al (1986) Comparison of guinea pig and protozoan models for determining virulence of Legionella species. Infect Immun 53: 553559.
  • 20
    Fields, B.S., Barbaree, J.M., Sanden, G.N., Morrill, W.E. (1990) Virulence of a Legionella anisa strain associated with Pontiac fever: an evaluation using protozoan, cell culture, and guinea pig models. Infect Immun 58: 31393142.
  • 21
    Finlay, B.B. & Falkow, S. (1997) Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61: 136169.
  • 22
    Freitag, N.E., Seifert, H.S., Koomey, M. (1995) Characterization of the pilFpilD pilus assembly locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol Microbiol 16: 575586.
  • 23
    Grindley, N.D. & Joyce, C.M. (1980) Genetic and DNA sequence analysis of the kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 71767180.
  • 24
    Hacker, J., Ott, M., Ludwig, B., Rdest, U. (1991) Intracellular survival and expression of virulence determinants of Legionella pneumophila. Infection 19: S198S201.
  • 25
    Hay, J., Seal, D.V., Billcliffe, B., Freer, J.H. (1995) Non-culturable Legionella pneumophila associated with Acanthamoeba castellanii : detection of the bacterium using DNA amplification and hybridization. J Appl Bacteriol 78: 6165.
  • 26
    Hickey, E.K. & Cianciotto, N.P. (1997) An iron- and Fur-repressed Legionella pneumophila gene that promotes intracellular infection and encodes a protein with similarity to the Escherichia coli aerobactin synthetases. Infect Immun 65: 133143.
  • 27
    Horwitz, M.A. (1983) The Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) inhibits phagosome–lysosome fusion in human monocytes. J Exp Med 158: 21082126.
  • 28
    Horwitz, M.A. & Silverstein, S.C. (1980) The Legionnaires' disease bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) multiplies intracellularly in human monocytes. J Clin Invest 66: 441450.
  • 29
    Hueck, C.J. (1998) Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 379433.
  • 30
    Kaufman, M.R., Seyer, J.M., Taylor, R.K. (1991) Processing of TCP pilin by TcpJ typifies a common step intrinsic to a newly recognized pathway of extracellular protein secretion by Gram-negative bacteria. Genes Dev 5: 18341846.
  • 31
    Keen, M.G. & Hoffman, P.S. (1989) Characterization of a Legionella pneumophila extracellular protease exhibiting hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Infect Immun 57: 732738.
  • 32
    Kovach, M.E., Elzer, P.H., Hill, D.S., Robertson, G.T., Farris, M.A., Roop, R.M., et al (1995) Four new derivatives of the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1MCS, carrying different antibiotic-resistance cassettes. Gene 166: 175176.
  • 33
    Leung, Y.M., Ou, Y.J., Kwan, C.Y., Loh, T.T. (1997) Specific interaction between tetrandrine and Quillaja saponins in promoting permeabilization of plasma membrane in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1325: 318328.
  • 34
    Liles, M.R., Viswanathan, V.K., Cianciotto, N.P. (1998) Identification and temperature regulation of Legionella pneumophila genes involved in type IV pilus biogenesis and type II secretion. Infect Immun 66: 17761782.
  • 35
    McDade, J.E., Shepard, C.C., Fraser, D.W., Tsai, T.R., Redus, M.A., Dowdle, W.R. (1977) Legionnaires' disease: isolation of a bacterium and demonstration of its role in other respiratory disease. N Engl J Med 297: 11971203.
  • 36
    Mody, C.H., Paine, III, R., Shahrabadi, M.S., Simon, R.H., Pearlman, E., Eisenstein, B.I. et al (1993) Legionella pneumophila replicates within rat alveolar epithelial cells. J Infect Dis 167: 11381145.
  • 37
    Moffat, J.F., Edelstein, P.H., Regula, Jr, D.P., Cirillo, J.D., Tompkins, L.S. (1994) Effects of an isogenic Zn-metalloprotease-deficient mutant of Legionella pneumophila in a guinea-pig pneumonia model. Mol Microbiol 12: 693705.
  • 38
    Nunn, D.N. & Lory, S. (1992) Components of the protein export-excretion apparatus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are processed by the type IV prepilin peptidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 4751.
  • 39
    Nunn, D., Bergman, S., Lory, S. (1990) Products of three accessory genes, pilB, pilC, and pilD, are required for biogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili. J Bacteriol 172: 29112919.
  • 40
    O'Connell, W.A., Bangsborg, J.M., Cianciotto, N.P. (1995) Characterization of a Legionella micdadei mip mutant. Infect Immun 63: 28402845.
  • 41
    Pearlman, E., Jiwa, A.H., Engleberg, N.C., Eisenstein, B.I. (1988) Growth of Legionella pneumophila in a human macrophage-like (U937) cell line. Microb Pathogen 5: 8795.
  • 42
    Pepe, C.M., Eklund, M.W., Strom, M.S. (1996) Cloning of an Aeromonas hydrophila type IV pilus biogenesis cluster: complementation of pilus assembly functions and characterization of a type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase required for extracellular protein secretion. Mol Microbiol 19: 857869.
  • 43
    Pugsley, A.P. (1993) The complete general secretory pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. Microbiol Rev 57: 50108.
  • 44
    Pugsley, A.P. & Reyss, I. (1990) Five genes at the 3′ end of the Klebsiella pneumoniae pulC operon are required for pullulanase secretion. Mol Microbiol 4: 365379.
  • 45
    Pugsley, A.P., Francetic, O., Possot, O.M., Sauvonnet, N., Hardie, K.R. (1997) Recent progress and future directions in studies of the main terminal branch of the general secretory pathway in Gram-negative bacteria — a review. Gene 192: 1319.
  • 46
    Quinn, F.D. & Tompkins, L.S. (1989) Analysis of a cloned sequence of Legionella pneumophila encoding a 38 kDa metalloprotease possessing haemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Mol Microbiol 3: 797805.
  • 47
    Reinhardt, J.F., Nakahama, C., Edelstein, P.H. (1987) Comparison of blood culture methods for recovery of Legionella pneumophila from the blood of guinea pigs with experimental infection. J Clin Microbiol 25: 719721.
  • 48
    Russel, M. (1998) Macromolecular assembly and secretion across the bacterial cell envelope: type II protein secretion systems. J Mol Biol 279: 485499.
  • 49
    Salmond, G.P.C. & Reeves, P.J. (1993) Membrane traffic wardens and protein secretion in gram-negative bacteria. Trends Biochem Sci 18: 712.
  • 50
    Sandkvist, M., Michel, L.O., Hough, L.P., Morales, V.M., Bagdasarian, M., Koomey, M., et al (1997) General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol 179: 69947003.
  • 51
    Segal, G., Purcell, M., Shuman, H.A. (1998) Host cell killing and bacterial conjugation require overlapping sets of genes within a 22 kb region of the Legionella pneumophila genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 16691674.
  • 52
    Stone, B. & Abu Kwaik, Y. (1998) Expression of multiple pili by Legionella pneumophila: identification and characterization of a type IV pilin gene and its role in adherence to mammalian and protozoan cells. Infect Immun 66: 17681775.
  • 53
    Strom, M.S. & Lory, S. (1993) Structure–function and biogenesis of the type IV pili. Annu Rev Microbiol 47: 565596.
  • 54
    Strom, M.S., Nunn, D., Lory, S. (1991) Multiple roles of the pilus biogenesis protein PilD: involvement of PilD in excretion of enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 173: 11751180.
  • 55
    Szeto, L. & Shuman, H.A. (1990) The Legionella pneumophila major secretory protein, a protease, is not required for intracellular growth or cell killing. Infect Immun 58: 25852592.
  • 56
    Tommassen, J., Filloux, A., Bally, M., Murgier, M., Lazdunski, A. (1992) Protein secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Rev 103: 7390.
  • 57
    Turner, L.R., Lara, J.C., Nunn, D.N., Lory, S. (1993) Mutations in the consensus ATP-binding sites of XcpR and PilB eliminate extracellular protein secretion and pilus biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 175: 49624969.
  • 58
    Venkataraman, C., Haack, B.J., Bondada, S., Abu Kwaik, Y. (1997) Identification of a Gal/GalNAc lectin in the protozoan Hartmanella vermiformis as a potential receptor for attachment and invasion by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium. J Exp Med 186: 537547.
  • 59
    Vogel, J.P., Andrews, H.L., Wong, S.K., Isberg, R.R. (1998) Conjugative transfer by the virulence system of Legionella pneumophila. Science 279: 873876.
  • 60
    Wandersman, C. (1992) Secretion across the bacterial outer membrane. Trends Genet 8: 317322.
  • 61
    Winans, S.C., Burns, D.L., Christie, P.J. (1996) Adaptation of a conjugal transfer system for the export of pathogenic macromolecules. Trends Microbiol 4: 6468.
  • 62
    Winn, Jr, W.C., Davis, G.S., Gump, D.W., Craighead, J.E., Beaty, H.N. (1982) Legionnaires' pneumonia after intratracheal inoculation of guinea pigs and rats. Lab Invest 47: 568578.
  • 63
    Yang, X.M. (1992) Optimization of a cultivation process for recombinant protein production by Escherichia coli. J Biotech 23: 271289.