A vital stain for studying membrane dynamics in bacteria: a novel mechanism controlling septation during Bacillus subtilis sporulation


Kit Pogliano. E-mail kpogliano@ucsd.edu; Tel. (+1) 619 822 1314; Fax (+1) 619 822 1431.


At the onset of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, two potential division sites are assembled at each pole, one of which will be used to synthesize the asymmetrically positioned sporulation septum. Using the vital stain FM 4-64 to label the plasma membrane of living cells, we examined the fate of these potential division sites in wild-type cells and found that, immediately after the formation of the sporulation septum, a partial septum was frequently synthesized within the mother cell at the second potential division site. Using time-lapse deconvolution microscopy, we were able to watch these partial septa first appear and then disappear during sporulation. Septal dissolution was dependent on σE activity and was partially inhibited in mutants lacking the σE-controlled proteins SpoIID, SpoIIM and SpoIIP, which may play a role in mediating the degradation of septal peptidoglycan. Our results support a model in which σE inhibits division at the second potential division site by two distinct mechanisms: inhibition of septal biogenesis and the degradation of partial septa formed before σE activation.