• 1
    Abshire, K.L. & Neidhardt, F.C. (1993) Analysis of proteins synthesized by Salmonella typhimurium during growth within a host macrophage. J Bacteriol 175: 37343743.
  • 2
    Alpuche Aranda, C.M., Swanson, J.A., Loomis, W.P., Miller, S.I. (1992) Salmonella typhimurium activates virulence gene transcription within acidified macrophage phagosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1007910083.
  • 3
    Bajaj, V., Hwang, C., Lee, C.A. (1995) hilA is a novel ompR/toxR family member that activates the expression of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes. Mol Microbiol 18: 715727.
  • 4
    Bajaj, V., Lucas, R.L., Hwang, C., Lee, C.A. (1996) Co-ordinate regulation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by environmental and regulatory factors is mediated by control of hilA expression. Mol Microbiol 22: 703714.
  • 5
    Belden, W.J. & Miller, S.I. (1994) Further characterization of the PhoP regulon: identification of new PhoP-activated virulence loci. Infect Immun 62: 50955101.
  • 6
    Blanc-Potard, A.B. & Groisman, E.A. (1997) The Salmonella selC locus contains a pathogenicity island mediating intramacrophage survival. EMBO J 16: 53765385.
  • 7
    Buchmeier, N.A. & Heffron, F. (1990) Induction of Salmonella stress proteins upon infection of macrophages. Science 248: 730732.
  • 8
    Burns-Keliher, L., Nickerson, C.A., Morrow, B.J., Curtiss III, R. (1998) Cell-specific proteins synthesized by Salmonella typhimurium. Infect Immun 66: 856861.
  • 9
    Cirillo, D., Valdivia, R.H., Monack, D., Falkow, S. (1998) Macrophage-dependent induction of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system and its role in intracellular survival. Mol Microbiol 30: 175188.
  • 10
    Deiwick, J., Nikolaus, T., Shea, J.E., Gleeson, C., Holden, D.W., Hensel, M. (1998) Mutations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) genes affecting transcription of SPI1 genes and resistance to antimicrobial agents. J Bacteriol 180: 47754780.
  • 11
    Foster, J.W. & Spector, M.P. (1995) How Salmonella survive against the odds. Annu Rev Microbiol 49: 145174.
  • 12
    Galan, J.E. (1996) Molecular genetic bases of Salmonella entry into host cells. Mol Microbiol 20: 263271.
  • 13
    Garcia del Portillo, F., Foster, J.W., Maguire, M.E., Finlay, B.B. (1992) Characterization of the micro-environment of Salmonella typhimurium-containing vacuoles within MDCK epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol 6: 32893297.
  • 14
    Garcia Vescovi, E., Soncini, F.C., Groisman, E.A. (1994) The role of the PhoP/PhoQ regulon in Salmonella virulence. Res Microbiol 145: 473480.
  • 15
    Garcia Vescovi, E., Soncini, F.C., Groisman, E.A. (1996) Mg2+ as an extracellular signal: environmental regulation of Salmonella virulence. Cell 84: 165174.
  • 16
    Groisman, E.A. & Ochman, H. (1997) How Salmonella became a pathogen. Trends Microbiol 5: 343349.
  • 17
    Gunn, J.S. & Miller, S.I. (1996) PhoP–PhoQ activates transcription of pmrAB, encoding a two-component regulatory system involved in Salmonella typhimurium antimicrobial peptide resistance. J Bacteriol 178: 68576864.
  • 18
    Gunn, J.S., Hohmann, E.L., Miller, S.I. (1996) Transcriptional regulation of Salmonella virulence: a PhoQ periplasmic domain mutation results in increased net phosphotransfer to PhoP. J Bacteriol 178: 63696373.
  • 19
    Harlow, E. & Lane, D. (1988) Antibodies. A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 20
    Headley, V.L. & Payne, S.M. (1990) Differential protein expression by Shigella flexneri in intracellular and extracellular environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 41794183.
  • 21
    Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Gleeson, C., Jones, M.D., Dalton, E., Holden, D.W. (1995) Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection. Science 269: 400403.
  • 22
    Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Bäumler, A.J., Gleeson, C., Blattner, F.R., Holden, D.W. (1997a) Analysis of the boundaries of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and the corresponding chromosomal region of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol 179: 11051111.
  • 23
    Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Raupach, B., Monack, D., Falkow, S., Gleeson, C., Holden, D.W. (1997b) Functional analysis of ssaJ and the ssaK/U operon, 13 genes encoding components of the type III secretion apparatus of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Mol Microbiol 24: 155167.
  • 24
    Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Waterman, S.R., Mundy, R., Nikolaus, T., Banks, G., Vazquez-Torres, A., Gleeson, C., Fang, F., Holden, D.W. (1998) Genes encoding putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 are required for bacterial virulence and proliferation in macrophages. Mol Microbiol 30: 163174.
  • 25
    Hensel, M., Nikolaus, T., Egelseer, C. (1999) Molecular and functional analysis indicates a mosaic structure of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Mol Microbiol 31: 489498.
  • 26
    Hmiel, S.P., Snavely, M.D., Miller, C.G., Maguire, M.E. (1986) Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: characterization of magnesium influx and cloning of a transport gene. J Bacteriol 168: 14441450.
  • 27
    Hmiel, S.P., Snavely, M.D., Florer, J.B., Maguire, M.E., Miller, C.G. (1989) Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: genetic characterization and cloning of three magnesium transport loci. J Bacteriol 171: 47424751.
  • 28
    Hueck, C.J., Hantman, M.J., Bajaj, V., Johnston, C., Lee, C.A., Miller, S.I. (1995) Salmonella typhimurium secreted invasion determinants are homologous to Shigella Ipa proteins. Mol Microbiol 18: 479490.
  • 29
    Johnston, C., Pegues, D.A., Hueck, C.J., Lee, C.A., Miller, S.I. (1996) Transcriptional activation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by a member of the phosphorylated response-regulator superfamily. Mol Microbiol 22: 715727.
  • 30
    Kyhle-Andersen, J. (1984) Electroblotting of multiple gels: a simple apparatus without buffer tank for rapid transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide to nitrocellulose. J Biochem Biophys Methods 10: 203209.
  • 31
    De Lorenzo, V. & Timmis, K.N. (1994) Analysis and construction of stable phenotypes in Gram-negative bacteria with Tn5- and Tn10-derived minitransposons. Methods Enzymol 235: 386405.
  • 32
    Maloy, S.R., Stewart, V.L., Taylor, R.K. (1996) Genetic Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 33
    Mekalanos, J.J. (1992) Environmental signals controlling expression of virulence determinants in bacteria. J Bacteriol 174: 17.
  • 34
    Miller, J.H. (1992) A Short Course in Bacteria Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 35
    Miller, S.I. (1991) PhoP/PhoQ: macrophage-specific modulators of Salmonella virulence? Mol Microbiol 5: 20732078.
  • 36
    Miller, S.I. & Mekalanos, J.J. (1990) Constitutive expression of the phoP regulon attenuates Salmonella virulence and survival within macrophages. J Bacteriol 172: 24852490.
  • 37
    Miller, S.I., Kukral, A.M., Mekalanos, J.J. (1989) A two-component regulatory system (phoP phoQ) controls Salmonella typhimurium virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 50545058.
  • 38
    Mills, D.M., Bajaj, V., Lee, C.A. (1995) A 40 kb chromosomal fragment encoding Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Mol Microbiol 15: 749759.
  • 39
    Moncrief, M.B.C. & Maguire, M.E. (1998) Magnesium and the role of mgtC in growth of Salmonella typhimurium. Infect Immun 66: 38023809.
  • 40
    Neidhardt, F.C., Bloch, P.L., Smith, D.F. (1974) Culture medium for enterobacteria. J Bacteriol 119: 736747.
  • 41
    Ochman, H., Soncini, F.C., Solomon, F., Groisman, E.A. (1996) Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 78007804.
  • 42
    O'Neal, C.R., Gabriel, W.M., Turk, A.K., Libby, S.J., Fang, F.C., Spector, M.P. (1994) RpoS is necessary for both the positive and negative regulation of starvation survival genes during phosphate, carbon, and nitrogen starvation in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol 176: 46104616.
  • 43
    Parkinson, J.S. & Kofoid, E.C. (1992) Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet 26: 71112.
  • 44
    Pegues, D.A., Hantman, M.J., Behlau, I., Miller, S.I. (1995) PhoP/PhoQ transcriptional repression of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes: evidence for a role in protein secretion. Mol Microbiol 17: 169181.
  • 45
    Rathman, M., Sjaastad, M.D., Falkow, S. (1996) Acidification of phagosomes containing Salmonella typhimurium in murine macrophages. Infect Immun 64: 27652773.
  • 46
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 47
    Schägger, H. & Von Jagow, G. (1987) Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the separation of proteins in the range of 1–100 kDa. Anal Biochem 166: 368379.
  • 48
    Shea, J.E., Hensel, M., Gleeson, C., Holden, D.W. (1996) Identification of a virulence locus encoding a second type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 25932597.
  • 49
    Slauch, J., Taylor, R., Maloy, S. (1997) Survival in a cruel world: how Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella respond to an unwilling host. Genes Dev 11: 17611774.
  • 50
    Soncini, F.C., Vescovi, E.G., Solomon, F., Groisman, E.A. (1996) Molecular basis of the magnesium deprivation response on Salmonella typhimurium: identification of PhoP-regulated genes. J Bacteriol 178: 50925099.
  • 51
    Spector, M.P. & Cubitt, C.L. (1992) Starvation-inducible loci of Salmonella typhimurium: regulation and roles in starvation-survival. Mol Microbiol 6: 14671476.
  • 52
    Stewart, V. & Parales, J. (1988) Identification and expression of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol 170: 15891597.
  • 53
    Studier, F.W., Rosenberg, A.H., Dunn, J.J., Dubendorff, J.W. (1990) Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of cloned genes. Methods Enzymol 185: 6089.
  • 54
    Swords, W.E., Cannon, B.M., Benjamin Jr, W.H. (1997) Avirulence of LT2 strains of Salmonella typhimurium results from a defective rpoS gene. Infect Immun 65: 24512453.
  • 55
    Valdivia, R.H. & Falkow, S. (1997) Fluorescence-based isolation of bacterial genes expressed within host cells. Science 277: 20072011.
  • 56
    Wang, R.F. & Kushner, S.R. (1991) Construction of versatile low-copy-number vectors for cloning, sequencing and gene sequencing in Escherichia coli. Gene 100: 195199.
  • 57
    Wilmes Riesenberg, M.R., Foster, J.W., Curtiss III, R. (1997) An altered rpoS allele contributes to the avirulence of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. Infect Immun 65: 203210.