• 1
    Adler, B., Sasakawa, C., Tobe, T., Makino, K., Komatsu, K., Yoshikawa, M. (1989) A dual transcriptional activation system for the 230 kb plasmid genes coding for virulence-associated antigens of Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol 3: 627635.
  • 2
    Albert, M.J., Faruque, S.M., Ansaruzzaman, M., Islam, M.M., Haider, K., Alam, K., et al (1992) Sharing of virulence-associated properties at the phenotypic and genetic levels between enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Hafnia alvei. J Med Microbiol 37: 310314.
  • 3
    Allaoui, A., Sansonetti, P.J., Parsot, C. (1993) MxiD, an outer membrane protein necessary for the secretion of the Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins. Mol Microbiol 7: 5968.
  • 4
    Atlung, T. & Ingmer, H. (1997) H-NS: a modulator of environmentally regulated gene expression. Mol Microbiol 24: 717.
  • 5
    Bustamente, V.H., Calva, E., Puente, J.L. (1998) Analysis of cis-acting elements required for bfpA expression in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 180: 30133016.
  • 6
    Casadaban, M. (1976) Transposition and fusion of the lac genes to selected promoters in Escherichia coli using bacteriophage lambda and Mu. J Mol Biol 104: 541555.
  • 7
    Chang, A.C.Y. & Cohen, S.N. (1978) Construction and characterization of amplifiable multicopy DNA cloning vehicles derived from the P15A cryptic miniplasmid. J Bacteriol 134: 11411156.
  • 8
    Devereux, J., Haeberli, P., Smithies, O. (1984) A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 387395.
  • 9
    Donnenberg, M.S., Calderwood, S.B., Donohue-Rolfe, A., Keusch, G.T., Kaper, J.B. (1990) Construction and analysis of TnphoA mutants of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli unable to invade HEp-2 cells. Infect Immun 58: 15651571.
  • 10
    Dorman, C.J. & Porter, M.E. (1998) The Shigella virulence gene regulatory cascade: a paradigm of bacterial gene control mechanisms. Mol Microbiol 29: 677684.
  • 11
    Elliott, S., Wainwright, L.A., McDaniel, T., MacNamara, B., Donnenberg, M., Kaper, J.B. (1998) The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69. Mol Microbiol 28: 14.
  • 12
    Foubister, V., Rosenshine, I., Donnenberg, M.S., Finlay, B.B. (1994) The eaeB gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is necessary for signal transduction in epithelial cells. Infect Immun 62: 30383040.
  • 13
    Frankel, G., Phillips, A.D., Rosenshine, I., Dougan, G., Kaper, J.B., Knutton, S. (1998) Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli : more subversive elements. Mol Microbiol 5: 911921.
  • 14
    Gómez-Duarte, O.G. & Kaper, J.B. (1995) A plasmid-encoded regulatory region activates chromosomal eaeA expression in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 63: 17671776.
  • 15
    Harley, C.B. & Reynolds, R.P. (1987) Analysis of E. coli promoter sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 23432361.
  • 16
    Hromockyj, A.E., Tucker, S.C., Maurelli, A.T. (1992) Temperature regulation of Shigella virulence: identification of the repressor gene virR, an analogue of hns, and partial complementation by tyrosyl transfer RNA (tRNA1Tyr). Mol Microbiol 6: 21132124.
  • 17
    Hueck, C.J. (1998) Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Mol Microbiol Rev 62: 379433.
  • 18
    Jarvis, K.G., Girón, J.A., Jerse, A.E., McDaniel, T.K., Donnenberg, M.S., Kaper, J.B. (1995) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contains a specialized secretion system necessary for the export of proteins involved in attaching and effacing lesion formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 79968000.
  • 19
    Jerse, A.E., Yu, J., Tall, B.D., Kaper, J.B. (1990) A genetic locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli necessary for the production of attaching and effacing lesions on tissue culture cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 78397843.
  • 20
    Kaniga, K., Bossio, J.C., Galán, J.E. (1994) The Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invF and invG encode homologues of the AraC and PulD family of proteins. Mol Microbiol 13: 555568.
  • 21
    Kaufman, M.R. & Taylor, R.K. (1994) Identification of bacterial cell-surface virulence determinants with TnphoA. Methods Enzymol 235: 426448.
  • 22
    Kenny, B. & Finlay, B.B. (1995) Protein secretion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is essential for transducing signals to epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 79917995.
  • 23
    Kenny, B., Lai, L., Finlay, B.B., Donnenberg, M.S. (1996) EspA, a protein secreted by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, is required to induce signals in epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol 20: 313324.
  • 24
    Kenny, B., DeVinney, R., Stein, M., Reinscheid, D.J., Frey, E.A., Finlay, B.B. (1997a) Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) transfers its receptor for intimate adherence into mammalian cells. Cell 91: 511520.
  • 25
    Kenny, B., Abe, A., Stein, M., Finlay, B.B. (1997b) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli protein secretion is induced in response to conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract. Infect Immun 65: 26062612.
  • 26
    Knutton, S., Rosenshine, I., Pallen, M.J., Nisan, I., Neves, B.C., Bain, C., et al (1998) A novel EspA-associated surface organelle of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli involved in protein translocation into epithelial cells. EMBO J 8: 21662176.
  • 27
    Kresse, A.U., Schulze, K., Deibel, C., Ebel, F., Rohde, M., Chakraborty, T., et al (1998) Pas, a novel protein required for protein secretion and attaching and effacing activities of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 180: 43704379.
  • 28
    Lai, L.-C., Wainwright, L.A., Stone, K.D., Donnenberg, M.S. (1997) A third secreted protein that is encoded by the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity island is required for transduction of signals and for attaching and effacing activities in host cells. Infect Immun 65: 22112217.
  • 29
    Levine, M.M. (1987) Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea: enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohemorrhagic, and enteroadherent. J Infect Dis 155: 377389.
  • 30
    McDaniel, T.K. (1996) A large genetic locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli sufficient to confer the attaching and effacing phenotype in vitro. PhD Thesis, University of Maryland, Baltimore.
  • 31
    McDaniel, T.K. & Kaper, J.B. (1997) A cloned pathogenicity island from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli confers the attaching and effacing phenotype on E. coli K-12. Mol Microbiol 23: 399407.
  • 32
    McNamara, B.P. & Donnenberg, M.S. (1998) A novel proline-rich protein, EspF, is secreted from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli via the type III export pathway. FEMS Microbiol Lett 166: 7178.
  • 33
    Maurelli, A.T. & Sansonetti, P.J. (1988) Identification of a chromosomal gene controlling temperature-regulated expression of Shigella virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 28202824.
  • 34
    Miller, J.H. (1972) Experiments in Molecular Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 35
    Moon, H.W., Whipp, S.C., Argenzio, R.A., Levine, M.M., Giannella, R.A. (1983) Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines. Infect Immun 41: 13401351.
  • 36
    Nakayama, S. & Watanabe, H. (1995) Involvement of cpxA, a sensor of a two-component regulatory system, in the pH-dependent regulation of expression of Shigella sonnei virF gene. J Bacteriol 177: 50625069.
  • 37
    Nakayama, S. & Watanabe, H. (1998) Identification of cpxR as a positive regulator essential for expression of the Shigella sonnei virF gene. J Bacteriol 180: 35223528.
  • 38
    Nataro, J.P. & Kaper, J.B. (1998) Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 142201.
  • 39
    Nataro, J.P., Maher, K.O., Mackie, P., Kaper, J.B. (1987) Characterization of plasmids encoding the adherence factor of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 55: 23702377.
  • 40
    Puente, J.L., Bieber, D., Ramer, S.W., Murray, W., Schoolnik, G.K. (1996) The bundle-forming pili of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli : transcriptional regulation by environmental signals. Mol Microbiol 20: 87100.
  • 41
    Robins-Browne, R.M., Tokhi, A.M., Adams, L.M., Bennett-Wood, V., Moisidis, A.V., Krejany, E.O., et al (1994) Adherence characteristics of attaching and effacing strains of Escherichia coli from rabbits. Infect Immun 62: 15841592.
  • 42
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning, a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • 43
    Schauer, D.B. & Falkow, S. (1993) Attaching and effacing locus of a Citrobacter freundii biotype that causes transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia. Infect Immun 61: 24862492.
  • 44
    Simons, R.W., Houman, F., Kleckner, N. (1987) Improved single and multicopy lac-based cloning vectors for protein and operon fusions. Gene 53: 8596.
  • 45
    Stanier, I., Iriarte, M., Cornelis, G.R. (1997) YscM1 and YscM2, two Yersinia enterocolitica proteins causing downregulation of yop transcription. Mol Microbiol 26: 833843.
  • 46
    Tobe, T., Schoolnik, G.K., Sohel, I., Bustamante, V.H., Puente, J.L. (1996) Cloning and characterization of bfpTVW, genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 21: 963975.
  • 47
    Tzipori, S., Wachsmuth, I.K., Chapman, C., Birner, R., Brittingham, J., Jackson, C., et al (1986) The pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in gnotobiotic piglets. J Infect Dis 154: 712716.