• 1
    Van Alphen, L., Riemens, T., Poolman, J., Hopman, C., Zanen, H. (1983) Homogeneity of cell envelope protein subtypes and biotypes among Haemophilus influenzae type b from patients with meningitis in the Netherlands. J Infect Dis 148: 7581.
  • 2
    Altschul, S.F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E.W., Lipman, D.J. (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215: 403410.
  • 3
    Anderson, P., Johnston, R., Smith, D. (1972) Human serum activities against Haemophilus influenzae, type b. J Clin Invest 51: 3138.
  • 4
    Bichara, M., Schumacher, S., Fuchs, R.P.P. (1995) Genetic instability within monotonous runs of CpG sequences in Escherichia coli. Genetics 140: 897907.
  • 5
    Dehio, C., Gray-Owen, S.D., Meyer, T.F. (1998) The role of neisserial Opa proteins in interactions with host cells. Trends Microbiol 6: 489495.DOI: 10.1016/s0966-842x(98)01365-1
  • 6
    Drake, J.W. (1991) A constant rate of spontaneous mutation in DNA-based microbes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 71607164.
  • 7
    Fleischmann, R.D., Adams, M.D., White, O., Clayton, R.A., Kirkness, E., Kerlavage, A., et al (1995) Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science 269: 496512.
  • 8
    Freudenreich, C.H., Kantrow, S.M., Zakian, V.A. (1998) Expansion and length-dependent fragility of CTG repeats in yeast. Science 279: 853856.
  • 9
    Freund, A.-M., Bichara, M., Fuchs, R.P.P. (1989) Z-DNA-forming sequences are spontaneous deletion hot spots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 74657469.
  • 10
    Van Ham, S.M., Van Alphen, L., Mooi, F.R., Van Putten, J.P. (1993) Phase variation of H. influenzae fimbriae: transcriptional control of two divergent genes through a variable combined promoter region. Cell 73: 11871196.
  • 11
    Hammerschmidt, S., Muller, A., Sillmann, H., Muhlenhoff, M., Borrow, R., Fox, A., et al (1996) Capsule phase variation in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B by slipped-strand mispairing in the polysialytransferase gene (siaD ): correlation with bacterial invasion and the outbreak of meningococcal disease. Mol Microbiol 20: 12111220.
  • 12
    Herriott, R.M., Meyer, E.M., Vogt, M.J. (1970) Defined nongrowth media for stage II development of competence in Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol 101: 517524.
  • 13
    High, N.J., Jennings, M.P., Moxon, E.R. (1996) Tandem repeats of the tetramer 5′-CAAT-3′ present in lic2A are required for phase variation but not lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Haemophilus influenzae. Mol Microbiol 20: 165174.
  • 14
    Hood, D.W., Deadman, M.E., Jennings, M.P., Bisercic, M., Fleischmann, R.D., Venter, J.C., Moxon, E.R. (1996) DNA repeats identify novel virulence genes in Haemophilus influenzae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 1112111125.
  • 15
    Kang, S., Jaworski, A., Ohshima, K., Wells, R.D. (1995) Expansion and deletion of CTG repeats from human disease genes are determined by the direction of replication in E. coli. Nature Genet 10: 213218.
  • 16
    Karlin, S., Mrazek, J., Campbell, A.M. (1996) Frequent oligonucleotides and peptides of the Haemophilus influenzae genome. Nucleic Acids Res 24: 42634272.
  • 17
    Karlin, S., Mrazek, J., Campbell, A.M. (1997) Compositional biases of bacterial genomes and evolutionary implications. J Bacteriol 179: 38993913.
  • 18
    Kauc, L. & Piekarowicz, A. (1978) Purification and properties of a new restriction endonuclease from Haemophilus influenzae Rf. Eur J Biochem 92: 417426.
  • 19
    Lea, D.E. & Coulson, C.A. (1949) The distribution of the numbers of mutants in bacterial populations. J Genet 49: 264285.
  • 20
    Levinson, G. & Gutman, G. (1987a) Slipped-strand mispairing: a major mechanism for DNA sequence evolution. Mol Biol Evol 4: 203221.
  • 21
    Levinson, G. & Gutman, G.A. (1987b) High frequencies of short frameshifts in poly-CA/TG tandem repeats borne by bacteriophage M13 in Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 53235338.
  • 22
    Luria, S.E. & Delbruck, M. (1943) Mutations of bacteria from virus sensitivity to virus resistance. Genetics 28: 491511.
  • 23
    Magnasco, M.O. & Thaler, D.S. (1996) Changing the pace of evolution. Phys Lett 221: 287292.
  • 24
    Morel, P., Reverdy, C., Michel, B., Ehrlich, S.D., Cassuto, E. (1998) The role of SOS and flap processing in microsatellite instability in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1000310008.
  • 25
    Moxon, E.R. (1992) Session III: Pathogenesis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease. Molecular basis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. J Infect Dis 165 1: S77S81.
  • 26
    Moxon, E.R. & Murphy, P.A. (1978) Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia and meningitis resulting from survival of a single organism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 15341536.
  • 27
    Moxon, E.R. & Thaler, D.S. (1997) The tinkerer's evolving tool-box. Nature 387: 659662.
  • 28
    Moxon, E.R., Rainey, P.B., Nowak, M.A., Lenski, R. (1994) Adaptive evolution of highly mutable loci in pathogenic bacteria. Curr Biol 4: 2433.
  • 29
    Sarkar, P.S., Chang, H.-C., Boudi, F.B., Reddy, S. (1998) CTG repeats show bimodal amplification in E. coli. Cell 95: 531540.
  • 30
    Saunders, N.J., Peden, J., Hood, D., Moxon, E.R. (1998) Simple sequence repeats in the Helicobacter pylori genome. Mol Microbiol 27: 10911098.
  • 31
    Sia, E.A., Kokoska, R.J., Dominska, M., Greenwell, P., Petes, T.D. (1997) Microsatellite instability in yeast: dependence on repeat unit size and DNA mismatch repair genes. Mol Cell Biol 17: 28512858.
  • 32
    Strauss, B.S., Sagher, D., Acharya, S. (1997) Role of proofreading and mismatch repair in maintaining the stability of nucleotide repeats in DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 25: 806813.
  • 33
    Streisinger, G. & Owen, J. (1985) Mechanisms of spontaneous and induced frameshift mutation in bacteriophage T4. Genetics 109: 633659.
  • 34
    Streisinger, G., Okada, Y., Emrich, J., Newton, J., Tsugita, A., Terzaghi, E., Inouye, M. (1966) Frameshift mutations and the genetic code. Cold Spring Harbour Symp Quant Biol 31: 7784.
  • 35
    Tran, H.T., Keen, J.D., Kricker, M., Resnick, M.A., Gordenin, D.A. (1997) Hypermutability of homonucleotide runs in mismatch repair and DNA polymerase proofreading yeast mutants. Mol Cell Biol 17: 28592865.
  • 36
    Weiser, J.N. & Pan, N. (1998) Adaption of Haemophilus influenzae to acquired and innate humoral immunity based on phase variation of lipopolysaccharide. Mol Microbiol 30: 767775.
  • 37
    Weiser, J.N., Love, J.M., Moxon, E.R. (1989) The molecular mechanism of phase variation of H. influenzae lipopolysaccharide. Cell 59: 657665.
  • 38
    Weiser, J.N., Williams, A., Moxon, E.R. (1990) Phase-variable lipopolysaccharide structures enhance the invasive capacity of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun 58: 34553457.
  • 39
    Wierdl, M., Dominska, M., Petes, T.D. (1997) Microsatellite instability in yeast: dependence on the length of the microsatellite. Genetics 146: 769779.