Multidrug resistance mechanisms: drug efflux across two membranes



A set of multidrug efflux systems enables Gram-negative bacteria to survive in a hostile environment. This review focuses on the structural features and the mechanism of major efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria, which expel from the cells a remarkably broad range of antimicrobial compounds and produce the characteristic intrinsic resistance of these bacteria to antibiotics, detergents, dyes and organic solvents. Each efflux pump consists of three components: the inner membrane transporter, the outer membrane channel and the periplasmic lipoprotein. Similar to the multidrug transporters from eukaryotic cells and Gram-positive bacteria, the inner membrane transporters from Gram-negative bacteria recognize and expel their substrates often from within the phospholipid bilayer. This efflux occurs without drug accumulation in the periplasm, implying that substrates are pumped out across the two membranes directly into the medium. Recent data suggest that the molecular mechanism of the drug extrusion across a two-membrane envelope of Gram-negative bacteria may involve the formation of the membrane adhesion sites between the inner and the outer membranes. The periplasmic components of these pumps are proposed to cause a close membrane apposition as the complexes are assembled for the transport.