• 1
    Agaisse, H. & Lereclus, D. (1994) Structural and functional analysis of the promoter region involved in full expression of the cryIIIA toxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis. Mol Microbiol 13: 97107
  • 2
    Balaban, N. & Novick, R.P. (1995) Autocrine regulation of toxin synthesis by Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 16191623
  • 3
    Bannantine, J.P. & Pattee, P.A. (1996) Construction of a chromosome map for the phage group II Staphylococcus aureus Ps55. J Bacteriol 178: 68426848
  • 4
    Bayer, M.G., Heinrichs, J.H., Cheung, A.L. (1996) The molecular architecture of the sar locus in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 178: 45634570
  • 5
    Blevins, J.S., Gillapsy, A.F., Rechtin, T.M., Hurlburt, B.K., Smeltzer, M.S. (1999) The staphylococcal accessory regulator (sar) represses transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin gene (cna) in an agr-independent manner. Mol Microbiol 33: 317326
  • 6
    Camilli, A., Portnoy, D.A., Youngman, P. (1990) Insertional mutagenesis of Listeria monocytogenes with a novel Tn917 derivative that allows direct cloning of a DNA flanking transposon insertions. J Bacteriol 172: 37383744
  • 7
    Chan, P.F. & Foster, S.J. (1998) Role of SarA in virulence determinant production and environmental signal transduction in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 180: 62326241
  • 8
    Cheung, A.L. & Fischetti, V.A. (1988) Variation in the expression of cell wall proteins of Staphylococcus aureus grown on solid and liquid media. Infect Immun 56: 10611065
  • 9
    Cheung, A.L. & Projan, S.J. (1994) Cloning and sequencing of sarA of Staphylococcus aureus, a gene required for the expression of agr. J Bacteriol 176: 41684172
  • 10
    Cheung, A.L. & Ying, P. (1994) Regulation of α- and β-hemolysins by the sar locus of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 176: 580585
  • 11
    Cheung, A.L., Koomey, J.M., Butler, C.A., Projan, S.J., Fischetti, V.A. (1992) Regulation of exoprotein expression in Staphylococcus aureus by a locus (sar) distinct from agr. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 64626466
  • 12
    Cheung, A.L., Eberhardt, K., Heinrichs, J.H. (1997) Regulation of protein A synthesis by sar and agr loci of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 65: 22432249
  • 13
    Chien, Y.-T. & Cheung, A.L. (1998) Molecular interactions between two global regulators, sar and agr in Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 273: 26452652DOI: 10.1074/jbc.273.5.2645
  • 14
    Chien, Y.-T., Manna, A.C., Cheung, A.L. (1998) SarA level is a determinant of agr activation in Staphylococus aureus. Mol Microbiol 30: 9911001DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01126.x
  • 15
    Chien, Y.-T., Manna, A.C., Projan, S.J., Cheung, A.L. (1999) SarA a global regulator of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, binds to a conserved motif essential for sar-dependent gene regulation. J Biol Chem 274: 3716937176DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.52.37169
  • 16
    Deora, R. & Misra, T.K. (1996) Characterization of the primary σ factor of Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 271: 2182821834DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.36.21828
  • 17
    Derré, I., Rapoport, G., Devine, K., Rose, M., Msadek, T. (1999) ClpE, a novel type of HSP100 ATPase, is part of the CtsR heat shock regulon of Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol 32: 581593
  • 18
    Foster, S.J. (1995) Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the major autolysin of Staphylococcus aureus 8325/4. J Bacteriol 177: 57235725
  • 19
    Fournier, B. & Hooper, D.C. (1998) Mutations in topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus: novel pleiotropic effects on quinolone and coumarin activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 121128
  • 20
    Fournier, B. & Hooper, D.C. (2000) A new two-component regulatory system involved in adhesion, autolysis, and extracellular proteolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 182: 39553964
  • 21
    Fournier, B., Aras, R., Hooper, D.C. (2000) Expression of the multidrug resistance transporter NorA from Staphylococcus aureus is modified by a two-component regulatory system. J Bacteriol 182: 664671
  • 22
    Gibson, T.J. (1984) Studies on the Epstein–Barr Virus Genome. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge
  • 23
    Giraudo, A.T., Raspanti, C.G., Calzolari, A., Nagel, R. (1994) Characterization of a Tn551-mutant of Staphylococcus aureus defective in the production of several exoproteins. Can J Microbiol 40: 677681
  • 24
    Giraudo, A.T., Rampone, H., Calzolari, A., Nagel, R. (1996) Phenotypic characterization and virulence of sae-agr-mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. Can J Microbiol 42: 120123
  • 25
    Heinrichs, J.H., Bayern, M.G., Cheung, A.L. (1996) Characterization of the sar locus and its interaction with agr in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 178: 418423
  • 26
    Ji, G., Beavis, R.C., Novick, R.P. (1995) Cell density control of staphylococcal virulence mediated by an octapeptide pheromone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 1205512059
  • 27
    Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B., Projan, S.J., Ross, H., Novick, R.P. (1990) agr: a polycistronic locus regulating exoprotein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. In Molecular Biology of the Staphylococci. Novick, R.P. (ed.). New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 373402
  • 28
    Kreiswirth, B.N., Lofdalh, S., Betley, M.J., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P.M., Bergdoll, M.S., Novick, R.P. (1983) The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage. Nature 305: 709712
  • 29
    Lee, C.Y., Buranen, S.L., Ye, Z.-H. (1991) Construction of single-copy integration vectors for Staphylococcus aureus. Gene 103: 101105
  • 30
    Lindsay, J.A. & Foster, S.J. (1999) Interactive regulatory pathways control virulence determinant production and stability in response to environmental conditions in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 262: 323331
  • 31
    McNamara, P.J., Milligan-Monroe, K.C., Khalili, S., Proctor, R.P. (2000) Identification, cloning, and initial characterization of rot, a locus encoding a regulator of virulence factor expression in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 182: 31973203
  • 32
    Manna, A. & Cheung, A.L. (2001) Characterization of sarR, a modulator of sar expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 69: 885896
  • 33
    Manna, A.C., Bayer, M.G., Cheung, A.L. (1998) Transcriptional analysis of different promoters in the sar locus in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 180: 38283836
  • 34
    Micka, B., Groch, N., Heinemann, U., Marahiel, M.A. (1991) Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis gene encoding the DNA-binding protein Hbsu. J Bacteriol 173: 31913198
  • 35
    Miller, J.H. (1972) Experiments in Molecular Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
  • 36
    Morfeldt, E., Janzon, L., Arvidson, S., Löfdahl, S. (1988) Cloning of a chromosomal locus (exp) which regulates the expression of several protein genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 211: 435440
  • 37
    Morfeldt, E., Taylor, D., Von Gabain, A., Arvidson, S. (1995) The activation of alpha-toxin translation in Staphylococcus aureus by the trans-encoded antisense RNA, RNAIII. EMBO J 14: 45694577
  • 38
    Morfeldt, E., Tegmark, K., Arvidson, S. (1996 ) Transcriptional control of the agr-dependent virulence gene regulator, RNAIII, in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 21: 12271237
  • 39
    Niemeyer, D.M., Pucci, M.J., Thanassi, J.A., Sharma, V.K., Archer, G.L. (1996) Role of mecA transcriptional regulation in the phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 178: 54645471
  • 40
    Novick, R.P. (1967) Properties of a cryptic high-frequency transducing phage in Staphylococcus aureus. Virology 33: 155166
  • 41
    Novick, R.P. (2000) Pathogenicity factors and their regulation. In Gram-Positive Pathogens. Fischetti, V.A., Novick, R.P., Ferreti, J.J., Portnoy, D.A., and Rood, J.I. (eds). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press, pp. 392407
  • 42
    Novick, R.P., Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B., Projan, S.J., Ross, H. (1989) agr: a complex locus regulating post-exponential phase exoprotein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. In Genetic Transformation and Expression. Butler, L.O., and Moseley, B.E.B. (eds). Andover: Intercept, pp. 495510
  • 43
    Novick, R.P., Ross, H.F., Projan, S.J., Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B., Moghazeh, S. (1993) Synthesis of staphylococcal virulence factors is controlled by a regulatory RNA molecule. EMBO J 12: 39673975
  • 44
    Novick, R.P., Projan, S.J., Kornblum, J., Ross, H.F., Ji, G., Kreiswirth, B. , et al. (1995) The agr P2 operon: an autocatalytic sensory transduction system in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 248: 446458
  • 45
    O'Reilly, M., De Azavedo, J.C.S., Kennedy, S., Foster, T.J. (1986) Inactivation of the alpha-haemolysin gene of Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 by site-directed mutagenesis and studies on the expression of its haemolysins. Microb Pathog 1: 125138
  • 46
    Patel, A.M., Nowlan, P., Weavers, E.D., Foster, T. (1987) Virulence of protein A-deficient and α-toxin-deficient mutants of Staphylococcus aureus isolated by allele replacement. Infect Immun 55: 31033110
  • 47
    Peng, H.-L., Novick, R.P., Kreiswirth, B., Kornblum, J., Schlievert, P. (1988) Cloning, characterization, and sequencing of an accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 170: 43654372
  • 48
    Rechtin, T.M., Gillapsy, A.F., Schumacher, M.A., Brennan, R.G., Smeltzer, M.S., Hurlburt, B.K. (1999) Characterization of the SarA virulence gene regulator of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 33: 307316
  • 49
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
  • 50
    Shivakumar, A.G., Gryczan, T.J., Kuzlov, Y.J., Dubnan, D. (1980) Organization of the pE194 genome. Mol Gen Genet 174: 241252
  • 51
    Smeltzer, M.S., Hart, M.E., Iandolo, J.J. (1992) Quantitative spectrophotometric assay for staphylococcal lipase. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 28152819
  • 52
    Smeltzer, M.S., Hart, M.E., Iandolo, J.J. (1993) Phenotypic characterization of xpr, a global regulator of extracellular virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 61: 919925
  • 53
    Stahl, M.L. & Pattee, P.A. (1983) Confirmation of protoplast fusion-derived linkages in Staphyloccus aureus by transformation with protoplast DNA. J Bacteriol 154: 406412
  • 54
    Stock, J.B., Ninfa, A.J., Stock, A.M. (1989) Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol Rev 53: 450490
  • 55
    Tegmark, K., Karisson, A., Arvidson, S. (2000) Identification and characterization of SarH1, a new global regulator of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 37: 398409DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02003.x
  • 56
    Vandenesch, F., Kornblum, J., Novick, R.P. (1991) A temporal signal, independent of agr, is required for hla but not spa transcription in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 173: 63136320
  • 57
    Wang, P.-Z. & Novick, R.P. (1987) Nucleotide sequence and expression of the lactamase gene from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 169: 17631766
  • 58
    Wolz, C., Pöhlmann-Dietze, P., Steinhuber, A., Chien, Y.-T., Manna, A., Van Wamel, W., Cheung, A.L. (2000) Agr-independent regulation of fibronectin-binding protein(s) by the regulatory locus sar in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 36: 230243DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01853.x
  • 59
    Yarwood, J.M., McCormick, J.K., Schlievert, P.M. (2001) Identification of a novel two-component regulatory system that acts in global regulation of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 183: 11131123