• 1
    Alrutz, M.A. & Isberg, R.R. (1998) Involvement of focal adhesion kinase in invasin-mediated uptake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1365813663DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.23.13658
  • 2
    Arber, S., Barbayannis, F.A., Hanser, H., Schneider, C., Stanyon, C.A., Bernard, O., Caroni, P. (1998) Regulation of actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase. Nature 393: 805809
  • 3
    Aspenstrom, P., Lindberg, U., Hall, A. (1996) Two GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, bind directly to a protein implicated in the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome. Curr Biol 6: 7075
  • 4
    Barkalow, K., Witke, W., Kwiatkowski, D.J., Hartwig, J.H. (1996) Coordinated regulation of platelet actin filament barbed ends by gelsolin and capping protein. J Cell Biol 134: 389399
  • 5
    Black, D.S. & Bliska, J.B. (1997) Identification of p130Cas as a substrate of Yersinia YopH (Yop51), a bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase that translocates into mammalian cells and targets focal adhesions. EMBO J 16: 27302744
  • 6
    Black, D.S. & Bliska, J.B. (2000) The RhoGAP activity of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cytotoxin YopE is required for antiphagocytic function and virulence. Mol Microbiol 37: 515527
  • 7
    Caron, E. & Hall, A. (1998) Identification of two distinct mechanisms of phagocytosis controlled by different Rho GTPases. Science 282: 17171721
  • 8
    Chen, L.M., Hobbie, S., Galan, J.E. (1996) Requirement of CDC42 for Salmonella-induced cytoskeletal and nuclear responses. Science 274: 21152118
  • 9
    Cox, D., Chang, P., Zhang, Q., Reddy, P.G., Bokoch, G.M., Greenberg, S. (1997) Requirements for both Rac1 and Cdc42 in membrane ruffling and phagocytosis in leukocytes. J Exp Med 186: 14871494
  • 10
    Dersch, P. & Isberg, R.R. (1999) A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self- association. EMBO J 18: 11991213
  • 11
    Edwards, D.C., Sanders, L.C., Bokoch, G.M., Gill, G.N. (1999) Activation of LIM-kinase by Pak1 couples Rac/Cdc42 GTPase signalling to actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Nature Cell Biol 1: 253259
  • 12
    Egile, C., Loisel, T.P., Laurent, V., Li, R., Pantaloni, D., Sansonetti, P.J., Carlier, M.F. (1999) Activation of the CDC42 effector N-WASP by the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein promotes actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and bacterial actin-based motility. J Cell Biol 146: 13191332
  • 13
    Fu, Y. & Galan, J.E. (1999) A Salmonella protein antagonizes Rac-1 and Cdc42 to mediate host-cell recovery after bacterial invasion. Nature 401: 293297
  • 14
    Hall, A. (1990) The cellular functions of small GTP-binding proteins. Science 249: 597712
  • 15
    Hamburger, Z.A., Brown, M.S., Isberg, R.R., Bjorkman, P.J. (1999) Crystal structure of invasin: a bacterial integrin-binding protein. Science 286: 291295DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5438.291
  • 16
    Hardt, W.D., Chen, L.M., Schuebel, K.E., Bustelo, X.R., Galan, J.E. (1998) S. typhimurium encodes an activator of Rho GTPases that induces membrane ruffling and nuclear responses in host cells. Cell 93: 815826
  • 17
    Hartwig, J.H., Bokoch, G.M., Carpenter, C.L., Janmey, P.A., Taylor, L.A., Toker, A., Stossel, T.P. (1995) Thrombin receptor ligation and activated Rac uncap actin filament barbed ends through phosphoinositide synthesis in permeabilized human platelets. Cell 82: 643653
  • 18
    Higgs, H.N. & Pollard, T.D. (2000) Activation by Cdc42 and PIP(2) of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) stimulates actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. J Cell Biol 150: 13111320
  • 19
    Isberg, R.R. & Leong, J.M. (1990) Multiple β 1 chain integrins are receptors for invasin, a protein that promotes bacterial penetration into mammalian cells. Cell 60: 861871
  • 20
    Just, I., Selzer, J., Wilm, M., Von Eichel-Streiber, C., Mann, M., Aktories, K. (1995) Glucosylation of Rho proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B. Nature 375: 500503
  • 21
    Leeuwen, F.N., Kain, H.E., Kammen, R.A., Michiels, F., Kranenburg, O.W., Collard, J.G. (1997) The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 affects neuronal morphology; opposing roles for the small GTPases Rac and Rho. J Cell Biol 139: 797807
  • 22
    Leong, J.M., Morrissey, P.E., Marra, A., Isberg, R.R. (1995) An aspartate residue of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein that is critical for integrin binding. EMBO J 14: 422431
  • 23
    Machesky, L.M. & Insall, R.H. (1998) Scar1 and the related Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex. Curr Biol 8: 13471356
  • 24
    Machesky, L.M., Mullins, R.D., Higgs, H.N., Kaiser, D.A., Blanchoin, L., May, R.C. , et al. (1999) Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 37393744
  • 25
    May, R.C., Caron, E., Hall, A., Machesky, L.M. (2000) Involvement of the Arp2/3 complex in phagocytosis mediated by FcγR or CR3 process. Nature Cell Biol 2: 246248
  • 26
    Mecsas, J., Raupach, B., Falkow, S. (1998) The Yersinia Yops inhibit invasion of Listeria, Shigella and Edwardsiella but not Salmonella into epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol 28: 12691281
  • 27
    Miki, H., Sasaki, T., Takai, Y., Takenawa, T. (1998a) Induction of filopodium formation by a WASP-related actin-depolymerizing protein N-WASP. Nature 391: 9396
  • 28
    Miki, H., Suetsugu, S., Takenawa, T. (1998b) WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by Rac. EMBO J 17: 69326941DOI: 10.1093/emboj/17.23.6932
  • 29
    Miki, H., Yamaguchi, H., Suetsugu, S., Takenawa, T. (2000) IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the regulation of membrane ruffling. Nature 408: 732735
  • 30
    Pepe, J.C., Wachtel, M.R., Wagar, E., Miller, V.L. (1995) Pathogenesis of defined invasion mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica in a BALB/c mouse model of infection. Infect Immun 63: 48374848
  • 31
    Persson, C., Carballeira, N., Wolf-Watz, H., Fallman, M. (1997) The PTPase YopH inhibits uptake of Yersinia, tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas and FAK, and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions. EMBO J 16: 23072318DOI: 10.1093/emboj/16.9.2307
  • 32
    Del Pozo, M.A., Price, L.S., Alderson, N.B., Ren, X.D., Schwartz, M.A. (2000) Adhesion to the extracellular matrix regulates the coupling of the small GTPase Rac to its effector PAK. EMBO J 19: 20082014DOI: 10.1093/emboj/19.9.2008
  • 33
    Rohatgi, R., Ma, L., Miki, H., Lopez, M., Kirchhausen, T., Takenawa, T., Kirschner, M.W. (1999) The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42- dependent signals to actin assembly. Cell 97: 221231
  • 34
    Rohatgi, R., Ho, H., Kirschner, M.W. (2000) Mechanism of N-WASP activation by CDC42 and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate. J Cell Biol 150: 12991310
  • 35
    Rosenshine, I., Duronio, V., Finlay, B.B. (1992) Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors block invasin-promoted bacterial uptake by epithelial cells. Infect Immun 60: 22112217
  • 36
    Snapper, S.B., Takeshima, F., Antón, I., Liu, C.-H., Thomas, S., Nguyen, D. , et al. (2001) N-WASP deficiency reveals distinct pathways for cell surface projections and the actin-based motility of intracellular microorganisms. Nature Cell Biol 3: 897904
  • 37
    Tran Van Nhieu, G. & Collatz, E. (1987) Primary structure of an aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-4, fused in vivo with the signal peptide of the Tn3-encoded beta-lactamase. J Bacteriol 169: 57085714
  • 38
    Tran Van Nhieu, G. & Isberg, R.R. (1993) Bacterial internalization mediated by β 1 chain integrins is determined by ligand affinity and receptor density. EMBO J 12: 18871895
  • 39
    Tran Van Nhieu, G., Krukonis, E.S., Reszka, A.A., Horwitz, A.F., Isberg, R.R. (1996) Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin β1 chain indicate a role for endocytosis factors in bacterial internalization. J Biol Chem 271: 76657672
  • 40
    Tran Van Nhieu, G., Caron, E., Hall, A., Sansonetti, P.J. (1999) IpaC induces actin polymerization and filopodia formation during Shigella entry into epithelial cells. EMBO J 18: 32493262DOI: 10.1093/emboj/18.12.3249
  • 41
    Von Pawel-Rammingen, U., Telepnev, M.V., Schmidt, G., Aktories, K., Wolf-Watz, H., Rosqvist, R. (2000) GAP activity of the Yersinia YopE cytotoxin specifically targets the Rho pathway: a mechanism for disruption of actin microfilament structure. Mol Microbiol 36: 737748DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01898.x
  • 42
    Yang, N., Higuchi, O., Ohashi, K., Nagata, K., Wada, A., Kangawa, K. , et al. (1998) Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM-kinase 1 and its role in Rac-mediated actin reorganization. Nature 393: 809812
  • 43
    Yarar, D., To, W., Abo, A., Welch, M.D. (1999) The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex. Curr Biol 9: 555558