Domestication of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accompanied by changes in gene expression and colony morphology



Although colonies from Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains are smooth, those isolated from nature exhibit a structured fluffy pattern. Environmental scanning electron microscopy shows that the cells within wild fluffy colonies are connected by extracellular matrix (ECM) material. This material contains a protein of about 200 kDa unrelated to the flocculins, proteins involved in cell–cell adhesion in liquid media. The matrix material binds to concanavalin A. Within a few passages on rich agar medium, the wild strains switch from the fluffy to the smooth colony morphology. This domestication is accompanied by loss of the ECM and by extensive changes in gene expression as detected by DNA microarrays. The expression of about 320 genes was changed in smooth colonies. The major changes comprise carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall, water channels, Ty-transposons and subtelomeric genes, iron homeostasis, vitamin metabolism and cell cycle and polarity. The growth in fluffy colonies may represent a metabolic strategy for survival of yeast under unfavourable conditions that is switched off under felicitous laboratory conditions.