This report updates the distribution and provides abundance estimates for Grauer's gorilla Gorilla gorilla graueri across its 90,000-sq-km range. The authors divide the range of Grauer's gorilla into four regions within which they identify 11 populations and estimate a total of c. 16,900 individuals. Gorillas found in the Kahuzi-Biega lowland–Kasese region represent 86 per cent of the subspecies's total population. Further, approximately 67 per cent of known Grauer's gorillas inhabit Kahuzi-Biega, Maiko and Virunga National Parks. The eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) has an extremely high human population growth rate indicating that deforestation and wildlife use trends will continue to increase. Thus, in spite of the encouraging results of surveys to identify populations and characterize abundance, no Grauer's gorilla population should be considered safe from extirpation.