Changes in abscisic acid (ABA) contents in Cd-treated rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings of two cultivars were investigated. On treatment with CdCl2, the ABA content rapidly increased in the leaves and roots of Cd-tolerant cultivar (cv. Tainung 67, TNG67) but not in the Cd-sensitive cultivar (cv. Taichung Native 1, TN1). The reduction of transpiration rate of TN1 caused by Cd was less than that of TNG67. Exogenous application of ABA reduced transpiration rate, decreased Cd content, and enhanced Cd tolerance of TN1 seedlings. Exogenous application of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced ABA accumulation, increased transpiration rate and Cd content, and decreased Cd tolerance of TNG67 seedlings. Fluridone effect on Cd toxicity of TNG67 seedlings was reversed by the application of ABA. The roles of endogenous ABA in Cd tolerance of rice seedlings are discussed and suggested.