The virulence of 57 single colonies of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei from Tunisia and Morocco was investigated using the Pallas near-isogenic differential set. Virulence patterns in general were similar in both countries. Va8, Va10+Du2, V41/145, VLa and VRu2 appear to be common in the region. The resistance alleles Mla7 and Mla9, in combination with other resistances, were highly effective against the isolates tested. No virulence against mlo and Mla9 + k was detected in Tunisia. No virulence on Mla7 and Mla9 was detected in Morocco. The frequency of virulence against several resistances was significantly higher in Morocco than in Tunisia. On the other hand, virulence against other resistances was higher in Tunisia than in Morocco. Three isolates from Morocco infected mlo to an extent greater than previously described. All pathotypes were unique. An attempt is made to interpret the results by comparison with pathotype evolution in Europe.