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The genetic structure of wild populations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was evaluated for virulence and molecular markers. Forty-five isolates were collected from five wild common bean populations located in their South-Andean centre of origin. The five pathogen populations were monomorphic in their ITS regions, but 45 polymorphic markers were identified using RAPDs. Polymorphism for virulence was also observed; 15 pathotypes were characterized on an international set of 12 differentials. A molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) showed that a very large part of the total genetic variation was within populations. Statistical analysis showed that there was a weak though significant differentiation among the five populations for the RAPD and virulence markers. A positive and significant correlation was found between geographic distance and the distances from RAPD and virulence data, suggesting migration between adjacent populations along the Argentinian transect. Our results suggest that the Andean wild isolates of C. lindemuthianum do not reflect all the putative diversity found in the isolates from cultivated common bean.