• 1
    Oldfors A, Fyhr IM. Inclusion body myositis: genetic factors, aberrant protein expression, and autoimmunity. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2001;13: 46975.
  • 2
    Lindberg C, Persson L, Björkander J, Oldfors A. Inclusion body myositis – clinical, morphological, physiological and laboratory findings in 18 cases. Acta Neurol Scand 1994;89: 12331.
  • 3
    Oldfors A & Lindberg C. Inclusion body myositis. Curr Opin Neurol 1999;12: 52733.
  • 4
    Arahata K, Engel AG. Monoclonal antibody analysis of mononuclear cells in myopathies. I: quantitation of subsets according to diagnosis and sites of accumulation and demonstration and counts of muscle fibers invaded by T cells. Ann Neurol 1984;16: 193208.
  • 5
    Arahata K, Engel AG. Monoclonal antibody analysis of mononuclear cells in myopathies. III: immunoelectron microscopy aspects of cell-mediated muscle fiber injury. Ann Neurol 1986;19: 11225.
  • 6
    Arahata K, Engel AG. Monoclonal antibody analysis of mononuclear cells in myopathies. IV: Cell-mediated cytotoxicity and muscle fiber necrosis. Ann Neurol 1988;23: 16873.
  • 7
    Mendell JR, Sahenk Z, Gales T, Paul L. Amyloid filaments in inclusion body myositis. Novel findings provide insight into nature of filaments. Arch Neurol 1991;48: 122934.
  • 8
    Askanas V, Engel WK. Inclusion-body myositis and myopathies: different etiologies, possibly similar pathogenic mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurol 2002;15: 52531.
  • 9
    Dalakas MC. Myosites a inclusions: mecanismes etiologiques. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2002;158: 94858.
  • 10
    Pruitt JN, Showalter CJ, Engel AG. Sporadic inclusion body myositis: counts of different types of abnormal fibers. Ann Neurol 1996;39: 13943.
  • 11
    Engel AG, Arahata K. Monoclonal antibody analysis of mononuclear cells in myopathies. II: phenotypes of autoinvasive cells in polymyositis and inclusion body myositis. Ann Neurol 1984;16: 20915.
  • 12
    Fyhr IM, Moslemi AR, Tarkowski A, Lindberg C, Oldfors A. Limited T-cell receptor V gene usage in inclusion body myositis. Scand J Immunol 1996;43: 10914.
  • 13
    Lindberg C, Oldfors A, Tarkowski A. Restricted use of T cell receptor V genes in endomysial infiltrates of patients with inflammatory myopathies. Eur J Immunol 1994;24: 265963.
  • 14
    O'Hanlon TP, Dalakas MC, Plotz PH, Miller FW. The αβ T-cell receptor repertoire in inclusion body myositis – diverse patterns of gene expression by muscle-infiltrating lymphocytes. J Autoimmun 1994;7: 32133.
  • 15
    Fyhr IM, Moslemi AR, Mosavi AA, Lindberg C, Tarkowski A, Oldfors A. Oligoclonal expansion of muscle infiltrating T cells in inclusion body myositis. J Neuroimmunol 1997;79: 1859.
  • 16
    Fyhr IM, Moslemi AR, Lindberg C, Oldfors A. T cell receptor beta-chain repertoire in inclusion body myositis. J Neuroimmunol 1998;91: 12934.
  • 17
    Bender A, Behrens L, Engel AG, Hohlfeld R. T-cell heterogeneity in muscle lesions of inclusion body myositis. J Neuroimmunol 1998;84: 8691.
  • 18
    Griggs RC, Askanas V, DiMauro S et al. Inclusion body myositis and myopathies. Ann Neurol 1995;38: 70513.
  • 19
    Moss PAH, Bell JI. Sequence analysis of the human alpha beta T-cell receptor CDR3 region. Immunogenetics 1995;42: 108.
  • 20
    Mantegazza R, Andreetta F, Bernasconi P et al. Analysis of T-cell receptor repertoire of muscle-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in polymyositis. Restricted V-alpha/beta rearrangements may indicate antigen-driven selection. J Clin Invest 1993;91: 28806.
  • 21
    O'Hanlon TP, Dalakas MC, Plotz PH, Miller FW. Predominant TCR-αβ variable and joining gene expression by muscle-infiltrating lymphocytes in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. J Immunol 1994;152: 256976.
  • 22
    Bender A, Ernst N, Iglesias A, Dornmair K, Wekerle H, Hohlfeld R. T cell receptor repertoire in polymyositis: clonal expansion of autoaggressive CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med 1995;181: 18638.
  • 23
    Bernasconi P, Confalonieri P, Andreetta F, Baggi F, Cornelio F, Mantegazza R. The expression of co-stimulatory and accessory molecules on cultured human muscle cells is not dependent on stimulus by pro-inflammatory cytokines: relevance for the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathy. J Neuroimmunol 1998;85: 528.
  • 24
    Murata K, Dalakas MC. Expression of the costimulatory molecule BB-1, the ligands CTLA-4 and CD28, and their mRNA in inflammatory myopathies. Am J Pathol 1999;155: 45360.
  • 25
    Behrens L, Kerschensteiner M, Misgeld T, Goebels N, Wekerle H, Hohlfeld R. Human muscle cells express a functional costimulatory molecule distinct from B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) in vitro and in inflammatory lesions. J Immunol 1998;161: 594351.
  • 26
    Dahlbom K, Lindberg C, Oldfors A. Inclusion body myositis: morphological clues to correct diagnosis. Neuromuscul Disord 2002;12: 8537.
  • 27
    Koffman BM, Sivakumar K, Simonis T, Stroncek D, Dalakas MC. HLA allele distribution distinguishes sporadic inclusion body myositis from hereditary inclusion body myopathies. J Neuroimmunol 1998;84: 13942.
  • 28
    Garlepp MJ, Laing B, Zilko PJ, Ollier W, Mastaglia FL. HLA associations with inclusion body myositis. Clin Exp Immunol 1994;98: 405.
  • 29
    Rider LG, Gurley RC, Pandey JP et al. Clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features of familial idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41: 7109.
  • 30
    Lowin B, Hahne M, Mattmann C, Tschopp J. Cytolytic T-cell cytotoxicity is mediated through perforin and Fas lytic pathways. Nature 1994;370: 6502.
  • 31
    Orimo S, Koga R, Goto K et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of perforin and granzyme a in inflammatory myopathies. Neuromuscul Disord 1994;4: 21926.
  • 32
    Goebels N, Michaelis D, Engelhardt M et al. Differential expression of perforin in muscle-infiltrating T cells in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Clin Invest 1996;97: 290510.
  • 33
    Behrens L, Bender A, Johnson MA, Hohlfeld R. Cytotoxic mechanisms in inflammatory myopathies. Co-expression of Fas and protective Bcl-2 in muscle fibres and inflammatory cells. Brain 1997;120: 92938.
  • 34
    Fyhr IM, Oldfors A. Upregulation of Fas/Fas ligand in inclusion body myositis. Ann Neurol 1998;43: 12730.
  • 35
    Fyhr IM, Lindberg C, Oldfors A. Expression of Bcl-2 in inclusion body myositis. Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105: 4037.
  • 36
    Hutchinson DO. Inclusion body myositis: abnormal protein accumulation does not trigger apoptosis. Neurology 1998;51: 17425.
  • 37
    Schneider C, Gold R, Dalakas MC et al. MHC class I-mediated cytotoxicity does not induce apoptosis in muscle fibers nor in inflammatory T cells: studies in patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1996;55: 12059.
  • 38
    Sugiura T, Murakawa Y, Nagai A, Kondo M, Kobayashi S. Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42: 2918.
  • 39
    De Bleecker JL, De Paepe B, Vanwalleghem IE, Schröder JM. Differential expression of chemokines in inflammatory myopathies. Neurology 2002;58: 177985.
  • 40
    Lundberg IE & Nyberg P. New developments in the role of cytokines and chemokines in inflammatory myopathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1998;10: 5219.
  • 41
    Oldfors A, Lindberg C. Inclusion body myositis. In: ChandraP, ed. Advances in Clinical Neurosciences. Ranchi: The Catholic Press, 2001, 31533.
  • 42
    Kim G, Tanuma N, Kojima T et al. CDR3 size spectratyping and sequencing of spectratype-derived TCR of spinal cord T cells in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 1998;160: 50913.
  • 43
    Amemiya K, Granger RP, Dalakas MC. Clonal restriction of T-cell receptor expression by infiltrating lymphocytes in inclusion body myositis persists over time: studies in repeated muscle biopsies. Brain 2000;123: 20309.