Impact-related clastic injections in the marine Ordovician Lockne impact structure, Central Sweden
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Volume 44, Issue 5, pages 793–804, October 1997
How to Cite
STURKELL, E. F. F. and ORMÖ, J. (1997), Impact-related clastic injections in the marine Ordovician Lockne impact structure, Central Sweden. Sedimentology, 44: 793–804. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3091.1997.d01-54.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Manuscript received 30 November 1995; revision accepted 7 November 1996.
Clastic injections generated in connection with the formation of impact craters show many similarities to injections created by other geological processes. However, circumstances such as their position relative to the impact structure and the evidence of forceful processes indicate an impact origin. The Ordovician Lockne impact structure was formed in a marine environment with both sedimentary (Cambrian and Ordovician) and underlying crystalline (Proterozoic) target rocks. Sea water played a substantial part in the cratering process, especially in the modification of the newly formed crater as the water surged back into the structure.
In the Lockne area clastic dykes and sills have long been known and have earlier been interpreted as neptunian dykes and conglomerates. So far seven cases of dykes and sills are known in the area. In this work these are interpreted as clastic injections formed in connection with the Lockne impact. The clastic injections occur in the crystalline basement and the sedimentary sequence. The material in the injections comes from all local lithologies (both sedimentary and crystalline) but the sedimentary sequence dominates as a source. The dykes and sills were injected simultaneously with the fracturing and dilation of the host rock in the cratering process, and occur at different stratigraphic levels. In some dykes, clasts from the host rock wall can be fitted back to their original position; the clasts are slightly rotated and surrounded by exotic material. Quartz grains with planar deformation features were observed in the injected material. Most of the sills within the bedded Ordovician limestone are restricted to marly beds, except for the feeder dykes which cut through the overlying beds. This circumstance demonstrates how the decompression has opened the strata along weaker layers and that the underpressure created subsequently sucked the material down. Laminar flow is a conspicuous internal structure in the dykes and sills and indicates viscous flow of injected material. The lamination in the injected material is parallel to the walls in each case. The material was lithified prior to the event and was crushed, mobilized in a water/sediment slurry and injected as dykes and sills.