Phylogeny of Culicomorpha (Diptera)


O. A. Sæther, Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Bergen, Muséplass 3, N-5007 Bergen, Norway. E-mail:


The phylogeny of the families of Culicomorpha and their closest relatives are cladistically reinvestigated adding published information from several sources. A revised data matrix is presented and some characters are discussed. Different outgroups and options used, characters unordered or ordered, the results reweighted or not and the results discussed. Nymphomyiidae in all cladograms, alone or together with Thaumaleidae, forms the sister group of the traditional Culicomorpha and should be included in this infraorder as suggested by others. Superfamily Chironomoidea is not monophyletic as Thaumaleidae or Nymphomyiidae + Thaumaleidae form the sister group to the remaining traditional Culicomorpha. The mutual relationships of Chironomidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae are variable between cladograms. They form a monophyletic group with Chironomidae and Simuliidae as sister groups when characters are unordered and reweighted or when some characters are ordered, others unordered and the result reweighted. When the characters are ordered, or when a combination of ordered and unordered are used they form a Hennigian comb with the phyletic sequence Chironomidae/Ceratopogonidae/Simuliidae. When characters are ordered and reweighted the phyletic sequence is Chironomidae/Simuliidae/Ceratopogonidae. Culicoidea is monophyletic in all cladograms, but the division into superfamilies is not warranted.