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Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure, with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera)

Authors


Kazunori Yoshizawa, Biosystematics Laboratory, Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560, Japan.
E-mail: psocid@ya2.sonet.ne.jp

Summary

Phylogenetic relationships among three paraneopteran clades (Psocodea, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera) were analysed based on the morphology of forewing base structure. Monophyly of Paraneoptera was supported by nine autapomorphies, monophyly of Condylognatha (= Thysanoptera + Hemiptera) by two autapo- morphies, monophyly of Thysanoptera by five autapomorphies and monophyly of Hemiptera by one autapomorphy. Thus, (Psocodea + (Thysanoptera + Hemiptera)) were proposed to be the phylogenetic relationships within Paraneoptera. A homoplastic similarity of the third axillary sclerite was observed between Thysanoptera and Heteroptera, and a possible evolutionary factor providing this homoplasy was discussed. The present analysis also suggested a monophyletic Auchenorrhyncha, and reduction of the proximal median plate was considered as an autapomorphy of this clade.

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