Tomato plants transformed with a copy of the fruit-expressed phytoene synthase cDNA under control of the CaMV 35S promoter showed ectopic production of carotenoids. High expressers were reduced in stature. The dwarf character was inherited with an inverse relationship between expression of phytoene synthase and plant height. Severely affected plants also showed reduced chlorophyll content in young leaves. These dwarfs showed a 30-fold reduction in levels of gibberellin A1 (GA1) and growth was partially restored by treatment with exogenous GA3. Qualitative and quantitative changes in carotenoids were also found. It is proposed that the dwarf phenotype results from the over-production of phytoene synthase, which converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene and thereby diverts this intermediate away from the gibberellin (GA) and phytol biosynthetic pathways.