This paper reports on six Arabidopsis accessions that show resistance to a wild isolate of the powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe cichoracearum. Resistance at 7 days post-inoculation in these accessions was characterized by limited fungal growth and sporadic development of chlorotic or necrotic lesions at inoculation sites. Three accessions, Wa-1, Kas-1 and SI-0, were highly resistant, while the other accessions permitted some fungal growth and conidiation. Papilla formation was a frequent host response; however, cell death appeared to be neither a rapid nor a common response to infection. To determine the genetic basis of resistance, segregation analyses of progeny from crosses between each of the resistant accessions and Columbia (gl1), which is susceptible to the powdery mildew pathogen, were performed. For all accessions except SI-0, resistance was conferred by a single locus. SI-0 was unique in that two unlinked loci controlled the disease reaction phenotype. In accessions Wa-1, Kas-1, Stw-0 and Su-0, powdery mildew resistance was encoded by a semi-dominant allele. However, susceptibility was dominant to resistance in accessions Te-0 and SI-0. Mapping studies revealed that powdery mildew resistances in Kas-1, Wa-1, Te-0, Su-0 and Stw-0 were controlled by five independent loci. This study suggests that the Arabidopsis powdery mildew disease will be a suitable model system in which to investigate powdery mildew diseases.