This paper addresses the controversial idea that ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase may be located in the cytosol in some non-photosynthetic plant organs. The intracellular location of the enzyme in developing barley endosperm has been investigated by isolation of intact amyloplasts. Amyloplast preparations contained 13–17% of the total endosperm activity of two plastidial marker enzymes, and less than 0.5% of the total endosperm activity of two cytosolic marker enzymes. Amyloplast preparations contained about 2.5% of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity, indicating that approximately 15% of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity in young endosperms is plastidial. Immunoblotting of gels of endosperm and amyloplast extracts also indicated that the enzyme is both inside and outside the amyloplast. Antibodies to the small subunits of the enzyme from barley and maize revealed two bands of protein of different sizes, one of which was located inside and the other outside the amyloplast. The plastidial protein was of the same size as a protein in the chloroplasts of barley leaves which was also recognized by these antibodies. It is suggested that the barley plant contains two distinct isoforms of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase: one located in plastids (chloroplasts and amyloplasts) and the other in the cytosol of the endosperm. The role of the cytosolic ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is unknown. Although it may contribute ADPglucose to starch synthesis, the total activity of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the endosperm is far in excess of the rate of starch synthesis and the plastidial isoform is probably capable of catalysing the entire flux of carbon to starch.