Genetic evidence that the endodermis is essential for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors

  • Hidehiro Fukaki,

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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  • Joanna Wysocka-Diller,

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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  • Takehide Kato,

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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  • Hisao Fujisawa,

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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  • Philip N. Benfey,

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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  • Masao Tasaka

    1. Department of Botany, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–01, Japan, and, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
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Summary

Shoots of higher plants exhibit negative gravitropism. However, little is known about the mechanism or site of gravity perception in shoots. We have identified two loci that are essential for normal shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the shoot gravitropism mutants sgr1and sgr7are allelic to the radial pattern mutants, scrand shr, respectively. Characterization of the aerial phenotype of these mutants revealed that the primary defect is the absence of a normal endodermis in hypocotyls and inflorescence stems. This indicates that the endodermis is essential for shoot gravitropism and strongly suggests that this cell layer functions as the gravity-sensing cell layer in dicotyledonous plant shoots. These results also demonstrate that, in addition to their previously characterized role in root radial patterning, SCRand SHRregulate the radial organization of the shoot axial organs in Arabidopsis.

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