Protoplasts of corn coleoptiles and Arabidopsis hypocotyls respond to the plant hormone auxin with a rapid change in volume. We checked the effect of antibodies directed against epitopes of auxin-binding protein 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtERabp1) and Zea mays (ZmERabp1), respectively. Antibodies raised against the C-terminus of AtERabp1 inhibited the response to auxin, while antibodies raised against a part of box a, the putative auxin-binding domain, induced a swelling response similar to that caused by auxin treatment. Synthetic C-terminal oligopeptides of ZmERabp1 also caused a swelling response. These effects occurred regardless of whether the experiments were carried out with homologous (anti-AtERabp1 antibodies on Arabidopsis protoplasts or anti-ZmERabp1 antibodies in maize protoplasts) or heterologous immunological tools. The results indicate that the auxin signal for protoplast swelling is perceived by extracellular ABP1.