To acquire Fe from soil, graminaceous plants secrete mugineic acid family phytosiderophores (MAs) from their roots. The secretion of MAs increases in response to Fe deficiency, and shows a distinct diurnal rhythm. We used a microarray that included 8987 cDNAs of rice EST clones to examine gene expression profiles in barley roots during Fe-deficiency stress. Approximately 200 clones were identified as Fe-deficiency-inducible genes, of which seven had been identified previously. In order to meet the increased demand for methionine to produce MAs, Fe-deficiency enhances the expression of genes that participate in methionine synthesis, as well as recycling methionine through the Yang cycle. Of these 200 genes, approximately 50 exhibited different transcription levels in Fe-deficient roots at noon and at night. Northern blot analysis of time course experiments confirmed that five of these genes exhibited a diurnal change in their level of expression. The diurnal changes in the expression of these genes suggest that polar vesicle transport is involved in the diurnal secretion of MAs.