SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adjei-Maafo, I.K. (1980) Effects of the nectariless cotton tract on insect pests, parasites and predators with special reference to the effects on the reproductive characteristics of Heliothis spp. PhD Dissertation, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
  • Andow, D.A. (1990) Characterization of predation on egg masses of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 83, 482486.
  • Arpaia, S. (1997) Ecological impact of Bt-transgenic plants: 1. Assessing possible effects of CryIIIB toxin on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. J. Genet. Breed. 50, 315319.
  • Atwood, D.W., Young, S.Y. III and Kring, T.J. (1997) Development of Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) larvae treated with Bacillus thuringiensis and thiodicarb. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 751756.
  • Barbosa, P. (1988) Natural enemies and herbivore–plant interactions: influence of plant allelochemicals and host specificity. In: Novel Aspects of Insect–Plant Interactions (Barbosa, P. and Letourneau, D.K., eds). New York: Wiley, pp. 201229.
  • Barbosa, P., Saunders, J.A., Kemper, J., Trumbule, R., Olechno, J. and Martinat, P. (1986) Plant allelochemicals and insect parasitoids: effects of nicotine on Cotesia congregata (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Hyposoter annulipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 12, 13191328.
  • Barbour, J.D., Farrar, R.R. and Kennedy, G.G. (1993) Interaction of Manduca sexta resistance in tomato with insect predators of Helicoverpa zea. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 68, 143155.
  • Benrey, B. and Denno, R.F. (1997) The slow growth high mortality hypothesis: a test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology, 78, 987999.
  • Bernays, E.A. (1989) Plant sterols and host-plant affiliations of herbivores. In: Insect–Plant Interactions (Bernays, E.A., ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 4557.
  • Björkman, C. and Larsson, S. (1991) Pine sawfly defence and variation in host plant resin acids: a trade-off with growth. Ecol. Entomol. 16, 283289.
  • Blumberg, D., Navon, A., Keren, S., Goldenberg, S. and Ferkovich, S.M. (1997) Interactions among Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), its larval endoparasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 11811185.
  • Bogya, S. (1999) Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Boucias, D.G. and Pendland, J.C. (1998) Principles of Insect Pathology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Bozer, S.F., Traugott, M.S. and Stamp, N.E. (1996) Combined effects of allelochemical-fed and scarce prey on the generalist insect predator Podisus maculiventris. Ecol. Entomol. 21, 328334.
  • Campbell, B.C. and Duffey, S.S. (1979) Tomatine and parasitic wasps: potential incompatibility of plant antibiosis with biological control. Science, 205, 700702.
  • Campbell, B.C. and Duffey, S.S. (1981) Alleviation of tomative induced toxicity to the parasitoid, Hyposoter exigua, by phytosterols in the diet of the host, Heliothis Zea. J. Chem. Ecol, 7, 927941.
  • Campbell, C.D., Walgenbach, J.F. and Kennedy, G.G. (1991) Effects of parasitoids on lepidopterous pests in insecticide-treated and untreated tomatoes in Western North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 84, 16621667.
  • Campos, F., Donskov, N., Arnason, J.T., Philogène, B.J.R., Atkinson, J., Morand, P. and Werstiuk, N.H. (1990) Biological effects and toxicokinetics of DIMBOA in Diadegma terebrans (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), and endoparasitoid of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83, 356360.
  • Chadwick, D.J. and Goode, J.A. (eds) (1999) Insect–Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence. Chicester: Wiley.
  • Chapman, M.H. and Hoy, M.A. (1991) Relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis to the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and its predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari, Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 111, 147154.
  • Chenot, A.B. and Raffa, K.F. (1998) Effects of parasitoid strains and host instar on the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki with the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larval parasitoid Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 137147.
  • Cloutier, C. and Jean, C. (1998) Synergism between natural enemies and biopesticides: a test case using the stinkbug Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Bacillus thuringiensis against Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 95, 10961108.
  • Coll, M. and Bottrell, D.G. (1991) Microhabitat and resource selection of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its natural enemies in Maryland field corn. Environ. Entomol. 20, 526533.
  • Coll, M. and Bottrell, D.G. (1992) Mortality of European corn borer larvae by natural enemies in different corn microhabitats. Biol. Control, 2, 95103.
  • Crecchio, C. and Stotzky, G. (1997) Insecticidal activity and biodegradation of the toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki bound to humic acids from soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30, 463470.
  • Croft, B.A. and Messing, R. (1990) Ecological influences. Arthropod biological control agents and pesticides. In: Arthropod Biological Control Agents and Pesticides(Croft, B.A., ed).New York: Wiley, pp. 185218.
  • DeBach, P. (1974) Biological Control by Natural Enemies. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • DeBach, P. and Rosen, D. (1991) Biological Control by Natural Enemies, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • De Maagd, R.A., Bakker, P.L., Masson, L., Adang, M.J., Sangadala, S., Stiekema, W. and Bosch, D. (1999) Domain III of the Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin CryIAc is involved in binding to Manduca sexta brush border membranes and to its purified aminopeptidase N. Mol. Microbiol. 31, 463471.
  • De Maagd, R.A., Bravo, A. and Crickmore, N. (2001) How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect world. Trends Genet. 17, 193199.
  • Denolf, P. (1996) Identification, cloning and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin receptors in Lepidoptera. PhD Thesis, University of Gent, Belgium.
  • Dicke, M. (1999) Direct and indirect effects of plants on performance of beneficial organisms. In: Handbook of Pest Management (Ruberson, J.R., ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, pp. 105153.
  • Dicke, M. and Sabelis, M.W. (1988) How plants obtain predatory mites as body-guards. Neth. J. Zool. 38, 148165.
  • Dicke, M. and Vet, L.E.M. (1999) Plant–carnivore interactions: evolutionary and ecological consequences for plant, herbivore and carnivore. In: Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators (Olff, H., Brown, V.K. and Drent, R.H., eds). Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 483520.
  • Dicke, M., Van Beek, T.A., Posthumus, M.A., Ben Dom, N., Van Bokhoven, H. and De Groot, A.E. (1990) Isolation and identification of volatile kairomone that affects acarine predator–prey interactions. Involvement of host plant in its production. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 381396.
  • Dogan, E.B., Berry, R.E., Reed, G.L. and Rossignol, P.A. (1996) Biological parameters of convergent lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on transgenic potato. J. Econ. Entomol. 89, 11051108.
  • Dubois, N.R. and Dean, D.H. (1995) Synergism between CryIA insecticidal crystal proteins and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis, other bacterial spores, and vegetative cells against Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae. Environ. Entomol. 24, 17411747.
  • Duck, N.B. and Evola, S.V. (1997) Use of transgenes to increase host plant resistance to insects: opportunities and challenges. In: Advances in Insect Control: the Role of Transgenic Plants (Carozzi, N.B. and Koziel, M.G., eds). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 120.
  • Duffey, S.S. and Scudder, G.G.E. (1972) Cardiac glycosides in North American Asclepiadaceae: a basis of unpalatability in brightly colored Hemiptera and Coleoptera. J. Insect Physiol. 18, 6378.
  • Dutton, A., Klein, H., Romeis, J. and Bigler, F. (2002) Uptake of Bt-toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Ecol. Entomol. in press.
  • El-Heneidy, A.H., Barbosa, P. and Gross, P. (1988) Influence of dietary nicotine on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda and its parasitoid, the ichneumonid wasp Hyposoter annulipes. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 46, 227232.
  • Elsey, K.D. and Chaplin, J.F. (1978) Resistance of tobacco introduction 1112 to the tobacco budworm and green peach aphid. J. Econ. Entomol. 71, 723725.
  • Farrar, R.R. and Kennedy, G. (1993) Field cage performance of two tachinid parasitoids of the tomato fruitworm on insect resistant and susceptible tomato lines. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 67, 7378.
  • Farrar, R.R., Kennedy, G. and Kashyap, R.K. (1992) Influence of life history differences of two tachinid parasitoids of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on their interactions with glandular trichome/methyl ketone-based insect resistance in tomato. J. Chem. Ecol. 18, 499514.
  • Farrar, R.R., Barbour, J.D. and Kennedy, G. (1994) Field evaluation of insect resistance in a wild tomato and its effects on insect parasitoids. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 71, 211226.
  • Ferguson, J.E. and Metcalf, R.L. (1985) Cucurbitacins: plant-derived defense compounds for Diabroticites (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 11, 311318.
  • Ferré, J., Real, M.P., Van Rie, J. Jansens, S., Peferoen M. (1991) Resistance to the bacillus-thuringiensis bioinsecticide in a field population of Plutella xylostella due to a change in a midgut membrane-receptor. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA88, 51195123.
  • Flexner, J.L., Lighthart, B. and Croft, B.A. (1986) The effects of microbial pesticides on non-target, beneficial arthropods. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 16, 203254.
  • Franklin, R.T. and Holdaway, F.G. (1966) A relationship of the plant to parasitism of the European corn borer by the tachinid parasite, Lydella grisescens . J. Econ. Entomol. 59, 440441.
  • Fuentes-Contreras, E. and Niemeyer, H.M. (1998) Dimboa glucoside, a wheat chemical defense, affects host acceptance and suitability of Sitobion avenae to the cereal aphid parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi. J. Chem. Ecol. 24, 371381.
  • Gahan, L.J., Gould, F. and Heckel, D.G. (2001) Identification of a gene associated with Bt resistance in Heliothis virescens. Science, 293, 857860.
  • Gazit, E., La Rocca, P., Sansom, M.S.P. and Shai, Y. (1998) The structure and organization within the membrane of the helices composing the pore-forming domain of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin are consistent with an ‘umbrella-like’ structure of the pore. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 1228912294.
  • Giroux, S., Coté, J.-C., Vincent, C., Martel, P. and Coderre, D. (1994) Bacteriological insecticide M-one effects on predation efficiency and mortality of adult Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 87, 3943.
  • Glare, T.R. and O'Callaghan, M. (2000) Bacillus Thuringiensis: Biology, Ecology and Safety. Chichester: Wiley.
  • Godfray, H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids, Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Gould, F. (1994) Potential and problems with high-dose strategies for pesticidal engineered crops. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 4, 451461.
  • Gould, F., Kennedy, G.G. and Johnson, M.T. (1991) Effects of natural enemies on the rate of herbivore adaptation to resistant host plants. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 58, 114.
  • Hagen, K.S. (1986) Ecosystem analysis: plant cultivars (HPR), entomophagous species and food supplements. In: Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (Boethel, D.J. and Eikenbarry, R.D., eds). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited, pp. 151197.
  • Haggstrom, H. and Larsson, S. (1995) Slow larval growth on a suboptimal willow results in high predation mortality in the leaf beetle Galerucella lineola. Oecologia, 104, 308315.
  • Hare, J.D. (1992) Effects of plant variation on herbivore–natural enemy interactions. In: Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens (Fritz, R.S. and Simms, E.L., eds). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 278298.
  • Hawkins, B.A. (1994) Pattern and Process in Host–Parasitoid Interactions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Helle, W. and Sabelis, M.W. (1985) Spider mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 1B. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Hellmich, R.L., Siegfried, B.D., Sears, M.K., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Daniels, M.J., Mattila, H.R., Spencer, T., Bidne, K.G. and Lewis, L.C. (2001) Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis-purified proteins and pollen. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1192511930.
  • Herzog, D.C. and Funderburk, J.E. (1985) Plant resistance and cultural practice interactions with biological control. In: Biological Control in Agricultural IPM-Systems (Hoy, M.A. and Herzog, D.C., eds). Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, pp. 6788.
  • Hilbeck, A., Moar, W.J., Pusztai-Carey, M., Filippini, A. and Bigler, F. (1998a) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 12551263.
  • Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M. and Bigler, F. (1998b) Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 481487.
  • Hilbeck, A., Moar, W.J., Pusztai-Carey, M., Filippini, A. and Bigler, F. (1999) Prey-mediated effects of CryIAb toxin and protoxin and Cry2A protoxin on the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 91, 305316.
  • Hunter, M.D. and Schultz, J.C. (1993) Induced plant defenses breached? Phytochemical induction protects an herbivore from disease. Oecologia, 94, 195203.
  • Janssen, A., Pallini, A., Venzon, M. and Sabelis, M.W. (1998) Behaviour and indirect interactions in food webs of plant-inhabiting arthropods. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 22, 497521.
  • Jenkins, J.N. (1999) Transgenic plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Biopesticides: Use and Delivery (Hall, F.R. and Menn, J.J., eds). Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, pp. 211232.
  • Jenkins, J.L., Lee, M.K., Valaitis, A.P., Curtiss, A. and Dean, D.H. (2000) Bivalent sequential binding model of a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin to gypsy moth aminopeptidase N receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 1442314431.
  • Johnson, M.T. (1997) Interaction of resistant plants and wasp parasitoids of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Entomol. 26, 207214.
  • Johnson, M.T. and Gould, F. (1992) Interaction of genetically engineered host plant resistance and natural enemies of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tobacco. Environ. Entomol. 21, 586597.
  • Johnson, D.E. and McGaughey, W.H. (1996) Contributions of Bacillus thuringiensis spores to toxicity of purified Cry proteins towards Indianmeal moth larvae. Curr. Microbiol. 33, 5459.DOI: 10.1007/s002849900074
  • Johnson, K.S., Scriber, J.M., Nitao, J.K. and Smitley, D.R. (1995) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki to three nontarget Lepidoptera in field studies. Environ. Entomol. 24, 288297.
  • Johnson, M.T., Gould, F. and Kennedy, G.G. (1997a) Effect of entomopathogen on adaptation of Heliothis virescens populations to transgenic host plants. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 83, 121135.
  • Johnson, M.T., Gould, F. and Kennedy, G. (1997b) Effects of natural enemies on relative fitness of Heliothis virescens genotypes adapted and not adapted to resistant host plants. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 82, 219230.
  • Kaneda, C. (1986) Interaction between resistant rice cultivars and natural enemies in relation to the population growth of the brown planthopper. In: Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (Boethel, D.J. and Eikenbarry, R.D., eds). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited, pp. 117137.
  • Keller, B. and Langenbruch, G.A. (1993) Control of coleopteran pests by Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Bacillus Thuringiensis, and Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice (Entwistle, P.F., Cory, J.S., Bailey, M.J. and Higgs, S., eds). New York: Wiley, pp. 171191.
  • Koskella, J. and Stotzky, G. (1997) Microbial utilization of free and clay-bound insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their retention of insecticidal activity after incubation with microbes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 35613568.
  • Kota, M., Daniell, H., Varma, S., Garczynski, S.F., Gould, F. and Moar, W.J. (1999) Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistance insects. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 18401845.
  • Koziel, M.G., Beland, G.L., Bowman, C., et al. (1993) Field performance of elite transgenic maize plants expressing an insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Bio/Technology, 11, 194200.
  • Krieg, A. and Langenbruch, G.A. (1981) Susceptibility of arthropod species to Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Microbial Control of Pests and Diseases 1970–80 (Burges, H.D., ed.). London: Academic Press, pp. 837896.
  • Krieger, R.I., Feeny, P.P. and Wilkenson, C.F. (1971) Detoxification enzymes in the guts of caterpillars: an evolutionary answer to plant defenses? Science, 172, 579580.
  • Krips, O.E., Kleijn, P.W., Willems, P.E.L., Gols, G.J.Z. and Dicke, M. (1999) Leaf hairs influence searching efficiency and predation rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 23, 119131.
  • Krischik, V.A., Barbosa, P. and Reichelderfer, C.F. (1988) Three trophic level interactions: allelochemicals, Manduca sexta (L.), and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner. Environ. Entomol. 17, 476482.
  • Lewis, W.J. and Takasu, K. (1990) Use of learned odours by a parasitic wasp in accordance with host and food needs. Nature, 348, 635636.
  • Lewis, W.J., Van Lenteren, J.C., Phatak, S.C. and Tumlinson, J.H. (1998) A total system approach to sustainable pest management. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 1224312248.
  • Liang, Y., Patel, S.S. and Dean, D.H. (1995) Irreversible binding kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA δ-endotoxins to gypsy moth brush border membrane vesicles is directly correlated to toxicity. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2471924724.
  • Lingren, P.D., Lukefahr, M.J., Diaz, M. Jr and Hartstack, A. Jr (1978) Tobacco budworm control in caged cotton with a resistant variety, angmentative releases of Campoletis sonorensis, and natural control by other beneficial species. J. Econ. Entomol. 71, 739745.
  • Loader, C. and Damman, H. (1991) Nitrogen content of food plants and vulnerability of Pieris rapae to natural enemies. Ecology, 72, 15861590.
  • Lopez, R. and Ferro, D.N. (1995) Larviposition response of Myiopharus doryphorae (Diptera: Tachinidae) to Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae treated with lethal and sublethal doses of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. tenebrionis. J. Econ. Entomol. 88, 870874.
  • Losey, J.E., Rayor, L.S. and Carter, M.E. (1999) Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature, 399, 214.
  • Lozzia, G.C. and Rigamonti, I.E. (1998) Preliminary study on the effects of transgenic maize on non target species. IOBC-Integrated Control Cereal Crops, 21, 171180.
  • McBride, K.E., Svab, Z., Schaaf, D.J., Hogan, P.S., Stalker, D.M. and Maliga, P. (1995) Amplification of a chimeric Bacillus gene in chloroplasts leads to an extraordinary level of an insecticidal protein in tobacco. Bio/Technology, 13, 362365.
  • Malone, L.A. and Pham-Delègue, M.-H. (2001) Effects of transgene products on honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.). Apidologie, 32, 287304.
  • Masson, L., Tabashnik, B.E., Liu, Y.-B., Brousseau, R. and Schwartz, J.-L. (1999) Helix 4 of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin lines the lumen of the ion channel. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3199632000.
  • Mayse, M.A. and Price, P.W. (1978) Seasonal development of soybean arthropod communities in East Central Illinois. Agro-Ecosystems, 4, 387405.
  • Meier, M.S. and Hilbeck, A. (2001) Influence of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on prey preference of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Basic Appl. Entomol. 2, 3544.
  • Mendel, Z., Blumberg, D., Zehavi, A. and Weissenberg, M. (1992) Some polyphagous homoptera gain protection from their natural enemies by feeding on the toxic plants Spartium junceum and Erythrina corallodendrum (Leguminosae). Chemoecology, 3, 118124.
  • Merrit, C.R. (1998) The commercialisation of transgenic crops – the Bt experience. BCPC Symposium Proc. 71, 7986.
  • Miyasono, M., Inagaki, S., Yamamoto, M., Ohba, K., Ishiguro, T., Takeda, R. and Hayashi, Y. (1994) Enhancement of δ-endotoxin activity by toxin-free spore of Bacillus thuringiensis against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. J. Invert. Pathol. 63, 111112.
  • Moar, W.J., Trumble, J.T. and Federici, B.A. (1989) Comparative toxicity of spores and crystals from the NRD-12 and HD-1 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki to neonate beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82, 15931603.
  • Navon, A., Hare, J.D. and Federici, B.A. (1993) Interactions among Heliothis virescens larvae, cotton condensed tannin and the CryIA(c) delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Chem. Ecol. 19, 24852499.
  • Oberhauser, K.S., Prysby, M.D., Mattila, H.R., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Sears, M.K., Dively, G., Olson, E., Pleasants, J.M., Lam, W.-K.F. and Hellmich, R.L. (2001) Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1191311918.
  • Obrycki, J.J., Tauber, M.J. and Tingey, W.M. (1983) Predator and parasitoid interaction with aphid-resistant potatoes to reduce aphid densities: a two-year field study. J. Econ. Entomol. 76, 456462.
  • O'Dowd, D.J. and Willson, M.F. (1989) Leaf domatia and mites on Australian plants: ecological and evolutionary implications. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 37, 191236.
  • Orr, D.B. and Boethel, D.J. (1986) Influence of plant antibiosis through four trophic levels. Oecologia, 70, 242249.
  • Orr, D.B. and Landis, D.A. (1997) Oviposition of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and impact of natural enemy populations in transgenic versus isogenic corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 905909.
  • Painter, M.K., Tennessen, K.J. and Richardson, T.D. (1996) Effects of repeated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis on the mosquito predator Erythemis simplicollis (Odonata: Libellulidae) from hatching to final instar. Environ. Entomol. 25, 184191.
  • Palm, C.J., Schaller, D.L., Donegan, K.K. and Seidler, R.J. (1996) Persistence in soil of transgenic plant produced Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstakiδ-endotoxin. Can. J. Microbiol. 42, 12581262.
  • Panda, N. and Khush, G.S. (1995) Host plant resistance to insects. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
  • Paradise, C.J. and Stamp, N.E. (1990) Variable quantities of toxic diet cause different degrees of compensatory and inhibitory responses by juvenile praying mantids. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 55, 213222.
  • Pasteels, J.M. and Daloze, D. (1977) Cardiac glycosides in the defensive secretion of chrysomelid beetles: evidence for their production by the insects. Science, 197, 7072.
  • Pasteels, J.M., Daloze, D. and Rowell-Rahier, M. (1986) Chemical defence on chrysomelid eggs and neonate larvaePhysiol. Entomol. 11, 2937.
  • Pasteels, J.M., Rowell-Rahier, M. and Raupp, M.J. (1988) Plant-derived defense in Chrysomelid beetles. In: Novel Aspects of Insect–Plant Interactions (Barbosa, P. and Letourneau, D.K., eds). New York: Wiley, pp. 235272.
  • Perlak, F.J., Deaton, R.W., Armstrong, T.A., Fuchs, R.L., Sims, S.R., Greenplate, J.T. and Fischhoff, D.A. (1990) Insect resistant cotton plants. Bio/Technology, 8, 939943.
  • Perlak, F.J., Fuchs, R.L., Dean, D.A., McPherson, S.L. and Fischhoff, D.A. (1991) Modification of the coding sequence enhances plant expression of insect control protein genes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 33243328.
  • Peterson, S.C., Johnson, N.D. and LeGuyader, J.L. (1987) Defensive regurgitations of allelochemicals derived from host cyanogenesis by eastern tent caterpillars. Ecology, 68, 12681272.
  • Pietrantonio, P.V. and Gill, S.S. (1996) Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins: action on the insect midgut. In: Biology of the Insect Midgut (Lehane, M.J. and Billingsley, P.F., eds). London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 345372.
  • Pilcher, C.D., Obrycki, J.J., Rice, M.E. and Lewis, L.C. (1997) Preimaginal development, survival, and field abundance of insect predators on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn. Environ. Entomol. 26, 446454.
  • Pleasants, J.M., Hellmich, R.L., Dively, G.P., Sears, M.K., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Mattila, H.R., Foster, J.E., Clark, T.L. and Jones, G.D. (2001) Corn pollen deposition on milkweeds in and near cornfields. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1191911924.
  • Poppy, G.M. (1997) Tritrophic interactions: improving ecological understanding and biological control? Endeavour, 21, 6165.
  • Price, P.W. (1981) Semiochemicals in evolutionary time. In: Semiochemicals: Their Role in Pest Control (Nordlund, D.A., Jones, R.L. and Lewis, W.J., eds). New York: Wiley, pp. 251279.
  • Price, P.W. (1991) Evolutionary theory of host and parasitoid interactions. Biol. Control, 1, 8393.
  • Price, P.W. (1997) Insect Ecology. New York: Academic Press.
  • Price, P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPherson, B.A., Thompson, J.N. and Weis, A.E. (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11, 4165.
  • Raps, A., Kehr, J., Gugerli, P., Moar, W.J., Bigler, F. and Hilbeck, A. (2001) Immunological analysis of phloem sap of Bacillus thuringiensis corn and the nontarget herbivore Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) for the presence of Cry1Ab. Mol. Ecol. 10, 525533.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-294x.2001.01236.x
    Direct Link:
  • Rabb, R.L. and Bradley, J.R. (1968) The influence of host plants on parasitism of eggs of the tobacco hormworm. J. Econ. Entomol. 61, 12491252.
  • Ramsay, G., Thompson, C.E. and Mackay, G.R. (1999) Honeybees as vectors of GM oilseed rape pollen. BCPC Symposium Proc. 72, 209214.
  • Rice, M.E. and Wilde, G.E. (1989) Antibiosis effect of sorghum on the convergent lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a third-trophic level predator of the greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82, 570573.
  • Riddick, E.W. and Barbosa, P. (1998) Impact of Cry3A-intoxicated Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and pollen on consumption, development, and fecundity of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidea). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 303307.
  • Riddick, E.W. and Mills, N.J. (1995) Seasonal activity of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) affected by microbial and oil insecticides in an apple orchard in California. Environ. Entomol. 24, 361366.
  • Riddick, E.W., Dively, G. and Barbosa, P. (1998) Effect of a seed-mix deployment of Cry3A-transgenic and nontransgenic potato on the abundance of Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 647653.
  • Riechert, S.E. and Lockley, T. (1984) Spiders as biological control agents. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29, 299320.
  • Riggin-Bucci, T.M. and Gould, F. (1997) Impact of intraplot mixtures of toxic and nontoxic plants on population dynamics of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its natural enemies. J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 241251.
  • Roda, A., Nyrop, J., Dicke, M. and English-Loeb, G. (2000) Trichomes and spider-mite webbing protect predatory mite eggs from intraguild predation. Oecologia, 125, 428435.
  • Rowell-Rahier, M. and Pasteels, J.M. (1992) Third trophic level influences of plant allelochemicals. In: Herbivores, Their Interaction with Secondary Plant Metabolites (Rosenthal, G.A. and Berenbaum, M.R., eds). San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 243277.
  • Saxena, D., Flores, S. and Stotzky, G. (1999) Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bacillus thuringiensis corn. Nature, 402, 480.
  • Saxena, D., and Stotzky, G. (2001) Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Aoxin released from root exudates and biomass of Bt corn has no apparent effect on earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria, and fungi in soil. Soil Biol. Biochemo. 33, 12251230.
  • Schmaedick, M.A. and Shelton, A.M. (2000) Arthropod predators in cabbage (Cruciferae) and their potential as naturally occurring biological control agents for Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Can. Entomol. 132, 655675.
  • Schnepf, E., Crickmore, N., Van Rie, J., Lereclus, D., Baum, J., Feitelson, J., Zeigler, D.R. and Dean, D.H. (1998) Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62, 775806.
  • Schuler, T.H., Potting, R.P.J., Denholm, I. and Poppy, G.M. (1999a) Parasitoid behaviour and Bacillus thuringiensis plants. Nature, 400, 825826.
  • Schuler, T.H., Poppy, G.M., Potting, R.P.J., Denholm, I. and Kerry, B.R. (1999b) Interactions between insect tolerant genetically modified plants and natural enemies. BCPC Symposium Proc. 72, 197202
  • Schuler, T.H., Poppy, G.M., Kerry, B.R. and Denholm, I. (1999c) Potential side effects of insect-resistant transgenic plants on arthropod natural enemies. Trends Biotechnol. 17, 210216.
  • Schuler, T.H., Denholm, I., Jouanin, L., Clark, S.J., Clark, A.J. and Poppy, G.M. (2001) Population-scale laboratory studies of the effect of transgenic plants on nontarget insects. Mol. Ecol. 10, 18451853.
  • Schuster, D.J. (1994) Life-stage specific toxicity of insecticides to parasitoids of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Int. J. Pest Manage. 40, 191194.
  • Schuster, D.J. and Calderon, M. (1986) Interactions of host plant resistant genotypes and beneficial insects in cotton ecosystems. In: Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (Boethel, D.J. and Eikenbarry, R.D., eds). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited, pp. 8497.
  • Schuster, D.J. and Dean, H.A. (1973) Rhodesgrass scale resistance studied in Rhodesgrass. J. Econ. Entomol. 66, 467469.
  • Schuster, D.J. and Starks, K.J. (1975) Preference of Lysiphlebus testaceipes for greenbug resistant and susceptible small grain species. Environ. Entomol. 4, 887888.
  • Sears, M.K., Hellmich, R.L., Stanley-Horn, D.E., Oberhauser, K.S., Pleasants, J.M., Mattila, H.R., Siegfried, B.D. and Dively, G.P. (2001) Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: a risk assessment. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1193711942.
  • Sims, S.R. (1995) Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki[CryIA(c)] protein expressed in transgenic cotton: effects on beneficial and other non-target insects. Southwest. Entomol. 20, 493500.
  • Sims, S.R. (1997) Host activity spectrum of the CryIIA Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki protein: effects on Lepidoptera, Diptera, and non-target arthropods. Southwest. Entomol. 22, 395404.
  • Sims, S.R. and Holden, L.R. (1996) Insect bioassay for determining soil degradation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CryIA(b) protein in corn tissue. Environ. Entomol. 25, 659664.
  • Sims, S.R. and Martin, J.W. (1997) Effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins CryIA(b), CryIA(c), CryIIA, and CryIIIA of Folsomia candida and Xenylla grisea (Insecta: Collembola). Pedobiologia, 41, 412416.
  • Sims, S.R. and Ream, J.E. (1997) Soil inactivation of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CryIIA insecticidal protein within transgenic cotton tissue: laboratory microcosm and field studies. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 15021505.
  • Smith, C.M., Khan, Z.R. and Pathak, M.D. (1994) Techniques for Evaluating Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers.
  • Stamp, N.E., Yang, Y. and Osier, T.L. (1997) Response of an insect predator to prey fed multiple allelochemicals under representative thermal regimes. Ecology, 78, 203214.
  • Stanley-Horn, D.E., Dively, G.P., Hellmich, R.L., Mattila, H.R., Sears, M.K., Rose, R., Jesse, L.C.H., Losey, J.E., Obrycki, J.J. and Lewis, L. (2001) Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1193111936.
  • Stapel, J.O., Cortesero, A.M., De Moraes, C.M., Tumlinson, J.H. and Lewis, W.J. (1997) Extrafloral nectar, honeydew, and sucrose effects on searching behavior and efficiency of Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cotton. Environ. Entomol. 26, 617623.
  • Strohmeyer, H.H., Stamp, N.E., Jarzomski, C.M. and Bowers, D. (1998) Prey species and prey diet affect growth of invertebrate predators. Ecol. Entomol. 23, 6879.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2311.1998.00101.x
  • Strong, D.R., Lawton, J.H. and Southwood, T.R.E. (1984) Insects on Plants – Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Svoboda, J.A., Thompson, M.J., Robbins, W.E. and Kaplanis, J.N. (1978) Insect steroid metabolism. Lipids, 13, 742753.
  • Tapp, H. and Stotzky, G. (1995a) Dot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring the fate of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 602609.
  • Tapp, H. and Stotzky, G. (1995b) Insecticidal activity of the toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and tenebrionis adsorbed and bound on pure and soil clays. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 17861790.
  • Tapp, H. and Stotzky, G. (1998) Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in soil. Soil Biochem. 30, 471476.
  • Tapp, H., Calamai, L. and Stotzky, G. (1994) Adsorption and binding of the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and subsp. tenebrionis on clay minerals. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26, 663679.
  • Thomas, M. and Waage, J.K. (1996) Integration of Biological Control and Host Plant Resistance Breeding. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA).
  • Thorpe, K.W. and Barbosa, P. (1986) Effects of consumption of high and low nicotine tobacco by Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on survival of gregarious endoparasitoid Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 12, 13291337.
  • Thurston, R. and Fox, P.M. (1972) Inhibition by nicotine of emergence of Apanteles congregatus from its host, the tobacco hornworm. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65, 547550.
  • Traugott, M.S. and Stamp, N.E. (1996) Effects of chlorogenic acid- and tomatine-fed caterpillars on the behavior of an insect predator. J. Insect Behav. 9, 461476.
  • Treacy, M.F., Benedict, J.H., Walmsley, M.H., Lopez, J.D. and Morrison, R.K. (1987) Parasitism of bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs on nectaried and nectariless cotton. Environ. Entomol. 16, 420423.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J.H. and Lewis, W.J. (1990) Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps. Science, 250, 12511253.
  • Vaeck, M., Reynaerts, A., Höfte, H., Jansens, S., DeBeuckeleer, M., Dean, C., Zabeau, M., Van Montagu, M. and Leemans, J. (1987) Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Nature, 328, 3337.
  • Van Emden, H.F. (1986) The interaction of plant resistance and natural enemies: effects on populations of sucking insects. In: Interactions of Plant Resistance and Parasitoids and Predators of Insects (Boethel, D.J. and Eikenbarry, R.D., eds). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited, pp. 138150.
  • Van Haren, R.J.F., Steenhuis, M.M., Sabelis, M.W. and De Ponti, O.M.B. (1987) Tomato stem trichomes and dispersal success of Phytoseiulus persimilis relative to its prey Tetranychus urticae. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 3, 115121.
  • Van Lenteren, J.C. (1991) Biological control in a tritrophic system approach. In: Proceedings of the Aphid–Plant Interactions: Populations to Molecules (Peters, D.C., Webster, J.A. and Chlouber, C.S., eds). Stillwater, Oklahoma: Oklahoma State University , pp. 328.
  • Van Lenteren, J.C. (1993) Parasites and predators play a paramount role in insect pest management. In: Pest Management: Biologically Based Technologies (Lumsden, R.D. and Vaughn, J.L., eds). Beltsville, Maryland: Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, pp. 6881.
  • Van Lenteren, J.C., Hua, L.Z. and Rumei, X. (1995) The parasite–host relationship between Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera; Aphelinidae) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera; Aleyrodidae) XXVI. Leaf hairs reduce the capacity of Encarsia to control greenhouse whitefly on cucumber. J. Appl. Entomol. 119, 553559.
  • Van Rie, J., McGaughey, W.H., Johnson, D.E., Barnett, B.D. and Van Mellaert, H. (1990) Mechanism of insect resistance to the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis. Science, 247, 7274.
  • Van Rijn, P.C.J., Van Houten, Y.M. and Sabelis, M.W. (2002) How plants benefit from providing food to predators even when it is also edible to herbivores. Ecology, in press.
  • Vandenberg, J.D. (1990) Safety of four entomopathogens for caged adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83, 755759.
  • Watson, J.D., Gilman, M. and Witkowski, J. (1992) Recombinant DNA, 2nd edn. New York: Scientific American Books.
  • Weires, R.W. and Chiang, H.C. (1973) Integrated control prospects of major cabbage insect pests in Minnesota – based on the faunistic, host varietal, and trophic relationships. Techn. Bull. Agric. Exp. Station Univ. Minnesota, 291, 342.
  • Weiser, L.A. and Stamp, N.E. (1998) Combined effects of allelochemicals, prey availability, and supplemental plant material on growth of a generalist insect predator. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 87, 181189.
  • West, A.W., Burges, H.D., White, R.J. and Wyborn, C.H. (1984) Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal insecticidal activity in soil. J. Invert. Pathol. 44, 128133.
  • Young, S.Y., Kring, T.J., Johnson, D.R. and Klein, C.D. (1997) Bacillus thuringiensis alone and in mixtures with chemical insecticides against heliothines and effects on predator densities in cotton. J. Entomol. Sci. 32, 183191.
  • Yu, C.-G., Mullins, M.A., Warren, G.W., Koziel, M.G. and Estruch, J.J. (1997) The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 532536.
  • Zangerl, A.R., McKenna, D., Wraight, C.L., Carroll, M., Ficarello, P., Warner, R. and Berenbaum, M.R. (2001) Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and black swallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 1190811912.
  • Zwahlen, C., Nentwig, W., Bigler, F. and Hilbeck, A. (2000) Tritrophic interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn, Anaphothrips obscurus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and the predator Orius majusculus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Environ. Entomol. 29, 846850.