AGL24 acts as a promoter of flowering in Arabidopsis and is positively regulated by vernalization

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Summary

MADS-domain-containing transcription factors comprise a large family of regulators that have diverse roles in plant development, including the regulation of flowering time. AGAMOUS-LIKE 20/SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) and FRUITFUL act to promote flowering, whereas FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS M/MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING1, and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE are inhibitors of flowering. Here we report that AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24) also plays a role in the regulation of flowering time. agl24 mutants are late flowering and overexpression of AGL24 causes early flowering in wild-type and late-flowering-mutant backgrounds. The effect of AGL24 overexpression is most pronounced in autonomous-pathway-mutant and FRIGIDA-containing backgrounds. The behavior of AGL24 is most similar to that of SOC1. Like SOC1, AGL24 mRNA levels are upregulated by vernalization. Unlike SOC1, however, AGL24 mRNA levels are not affected by FLC, and therefore AGL24 may represent an FLC-independent target of the vernalization pathway. There is also evidence for cross-talk between AGL24 and SOC1. When overexpressed, SOC1 and AGL24 are able to upregulate each other's expression. Thus, AGL24 represents another component in a network of MADS-domain-containing transcription factors that regulate flowering time.

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