A genetic map of potato (Solanum tuberosum) was constructed based on 293 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers including 31 EST markers of Arabidopsis. The in silico comparison of all marker sequences with the Arabidopsis genomic sequence resulted in 189 markers that detected in Arabidopsis 787 loci with sequence conservation. Based on conserved linkage between groups of at least three different markers on the genetic map of potato and the physical map of Arabidopsis, 90 putative syntenic blocks were identified covering 41% of the potato genetic map and 50% of the Arabidopsis physical map. The existence and distribution of syntenic blocks suggested a higher degree of structural conservation in some parts of the potato genome when compared to others. Syntenic blocks were redundant: most potato syntenic blocks were related to several Arabidopsis genome segments and vice versa. Some duplicated potato syntenic blocks correlated well with ancient segmental duplications in Arabidopsis. Syntenic relationships between different genomic segments of potato and the same segment of the Arabidopsis genome indicated that potato genome evolution included ancient intra- and interchromosomal duplications. The partial genome coveridge and the redundancy of syntenic blocks limits the use of synteny for functional comparisons between the crop species potato and the model plant Arabidopsis.