RNA transcript levels of Arabidopsis plants, infected by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas thivervalensis (strain MLG45), and axenic control plants were compared using cDNA microarrays representing approximately 14 300 genes. The analysis revealed an increase of defence-related transcripts in the shoots of bacterized plants relative to control (axenic) plants. These modifications of transcript levels were confirmed by physiological experiments. Plants infected with P. thivervalensis were more resistant to subsequent infections by the virulent pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato (strain DC3000) than control plants. In addition, photosynthesis rates were repressed consistently with the reduced growth of plants colonized by P. thivervalensis. These results highlight the value of molecular phenotyping to predict physiological changes.