Floral dip: a simplified method forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation ofArabidopsis thaliana


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TheAgrobacteriumvacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transformArabidopsis thalianawithout plant tissue culture or regeneration. In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified transformation method was developed. The labor-intensive vacuum infiltration process was eliminated in favor of simple dipping of developing floral tissues into a solution containingAgrobacterium tumefaciens, 5% sucrose and 500 microliters per litre of surfactant Silwet L-77. Sucrose and surfactant were critical to the success of the floral dip method. Plants inoculated when numerous immature floral buds and few siliques were present produced transformed progeny at the highest rate. Plant tissue culture media, the hormone benzylamino purine and pH adjustment were unnecessary, andAgrobacteriumcould be applied to plants at a range of cell densities. Repeated application ofAgrobacteriumimproved transformation rates and overall yield of transformants approximately twofold. Covering plants for 1 day to retain humidity after inoculation also raised transformation rates twofold. Multiple ecotypes were transformable by this method. The modified method should facilitate high-throughput transformation ofArabidopsisfor efforts such as T-DNA gene tagging, positional cloning, or attempts at targeted gene replacement.