• 1
    Alonso PL, Smith T, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM et al, (1994) Randomised trial of efficacy of SPf66 vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in southern Tanzania. Lancet 344, 11751181.
  • 2
    Beck LR, Rodriguez MH, Dister SW et al, (1997) Assessment of a remote sensing-based model for predicting malaria transmission risk in villages of Chiapas, Mexico. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56, 99106.
  • Becker RA, Chambers JM & Wilks AR (1988)
    The new S language, Wadsworth and Brooks, Cole.
  • 4
    Beier JC, Oster CN, Onyango FN et al, (1994) Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site proposed for testing malaria vaccines in Western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 529536.
  • 5
    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango FK et al, (1990) Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya in press for malaria vaccine trials. Journal of Medical Entomology 27, 570577.
  • 6
    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA et al, (1987) Field evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite detection in anopheline mosquitoes from Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 36, 459468.
  • 7
    Bouma MJ, Sondorp HE van der Kaay HJ (1994) Climate Change and periodic epidemic malaria. Lancet 343, 1440.
  • 8
    Bouma MJ van der Kaay HJ (1994) Epidemic malaria in India and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Lancet 344, 16381639.
  • 9
    Bouma MJ van der Kaay HJ (1996) The El Nino southern oscillation and the historic malaria epidemics on the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka: an early warning system for future epidemics? Tropical Medicine & International Health 1, 8696.
  • 10
    Bouma MJ, Poveda G, Rojas W, et al (1997) Predicting high-risk years for malaria in Columbia using parameters of El Niño Southern Oscillation. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2, 11221127.
  • Boyd MF (1949) Epidemiology: factors related to the definitive host. In
    Malariology. (ed. MF Boyd) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 608–697.
  • Bradley DJ (1993) Human tropical diseases in a changing environment. In
    Environmental change in human health. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 146–170.
  • 13
    Briegel H, Lea AO (1975) Relationship between protein and proteolytic activity in the midgut of mosquitoes. Journal of Insect Physiology 21, 15971604.
  • 14
    Bryan JH, Foley DH, Sutherst RW (1996) Malaria transmission and climate in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 164, 345347.
  • 15
    Evans AM, Garnham PC (1936) The funestus series of Anopheles at Kisumu and a coastal locality in Kenya. Annals of Tropical Medical Parasitology 30, 511520.
  • 16
    Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diagne N et al. (1997) High annual and seasonal variations in malaria transmission by anophelines and vector species composition in Dielmo, a holoendemic area in Senegal. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56, 247253.
  • 17
    Freeman T, Bradley M (1996) Temperature is predictive of severe malaria years in Zimbabwe. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, 232.
  • Gabaldon A (1949) Malaria incidence in the West Indies and South America. In
    Malariology. (ed. MF Boyd) Saunders, Philadelphia.
  • 19
    Garnham PC (1948) The incidence of malaria at high altitudes. Journal of the National Malaria Society 7, 275284.
  • 20
    Garrett-Jones C (1964) Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of the mosquito's vectorial capacity. Nature 204, 11731175.
  • Gilles HM (1993) Epidemiology of Malaria. In
    Bruce-Chwatt's essential malariology. (eds. HM Gilles & DA Warrell) Edward Arnold, London, pp. 124–163.
  • 22
    Hay SI, Tucker CJ, Rogers DJ, Packer MJ (1996) Remotely sensed surrogates of meteorological data for the study of the distribution and abundance of arthropod vectors of disease. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 119.
  • 23
    Hay SI, Packer MJ, Rogers DJ (1997) The impact of remote sensing on the study and control of invertebrate intermediate hosts and vectors for disease. International Journal of Remote Sensing 18, 28992930.
  • 24
    Hay SI, Snow RW, Rogers DJ (1998a) From predicting mosquito habitat to malaria seasons using remotely sensed data: practice, problems and perspectives. Parasitology Today 14, 306313.
  • 25
    Hay SI, Snow RW, Rogers DJ (1998b) Prediction of malaria seasons in Kenya using multi-temporal meteorological satellite sensor data. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92, 1220.
  • Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Callander BA
    et al. (eds) (1996) Climate change, 1995 – the science of climate change:contribution of working group I to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Institute of Medicine (1991)
    Malaria: obstacles and opportunities. National Academy Press, Washington.
  • 28
    Jetten TH, Martens WJM, Takken W (1996) Model simulations to estimate malaria risk under climate change. Journal of Medical Entomology 33, 361371.
  • 29
    Karl TR, Knight RW, Plummer N (1995) Trends in high-frequency climate variability in the twentieth century. Nature 377, 217220.
  • 30
    Knudsen AB, Slooff R (1992) Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 70, 16.
  • 31
    Lindsay SW, Birley MH (1996) Climate change and malaria transmission. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 573588.
  • 32
    Loevinsohn M (1994) Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda. Lancet 343, 714718.
  • 33
    Martens WJM, Niessen LW, Rotmans J, Jetten TH, McMichael AJ (1995) Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 458464.
  • 34
    Martin PH, Lefebvre MG (1995) Malaria and climate: sensitivity of malaria potential transmission to climate. Ambio 24, 200207.
  • 35
    Matsuoka Y, Kai K (1995) An estimation of climatic change effects on malaria. Journal of Global Environment Engineering 1, 4357.
  • 36
    Noden BH, Kent MD, Beier JC (1995) The impact of variations in temperature on early Plasmodium falciparum development in Anopheles stephensi. Parasitology 111, 539545.
  • 37
    Nosten F, Luxemburger C, Kyle DE et al, (1996) Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of SPf66 malaria vaccine in children in northwestern Thailand. Lancet 348, 701707.
  • 38
    Oliver J, Grobler E (1992) Weather-malaria relationships in the Nelspruit region. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Wetenskap 88, 452454.
  • 39
    Patz JA, Epstein PR, Burke TA, Balbus JM (1996) Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 217223.
  • 40
    Petrarca V, Beier JC, Onyango F et al, (1991) Species composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex at two sites in western Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 28, 307313.
  • 41
    Reeves WC, Hardy JL, Reisen WK, Milby MM (1994) The potential effect of global warming on mosquito-borne arboviruses. Journal of Medical Entomology 31, 323332.
  • 42
    Reisen WK, Boreham FL (1982) Estimates of malaria vectorial capacity for An. culicifacies and An. stephensi in rural Punjab province, Pakistan. Journal of Medical Entomology 19, 98103.
  • 43
    Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1987) Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review 111, 517528.
  • Service MW (1993) The
    Anopheles vector. In Bruce-Chwatt's essential malariology. (eds. HM Gilles & DA Warrell) Edward Arnold, London, pp. 97–123.
  • Shuttleworth WJ (1993) Evaporation.
    Handbook of Hydrology. (ed. D Maidment) McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 4.1–4.53.
  • 46
    Swaroop S (1949) Forecasting of epidemic malaria in the Punjab, India. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 29, 117.
  • 47
    Thompson DF, Malone JB, Harb M et al, (1996) Bancroftian filariasis distribution in the southern Nile delta: correlation with diurnal temperature differences from satellite imagery. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3, 234235.
  • 48
    Thomson MC, Connor SJ, Milligan PJM, Flasse SP (1996) The ecology of malaria – as seen from Earth observation satellites. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 243264.
  • 49
    Thomson MC, Connor SJ, Milligan P, Flasse SP (1997) Mapping malaria risk in Africa: what can satellite data contribute? Parasitology Today 13, 313318.
  • 50
    Valero MV, Amador LR, Galindo C et al, (1993) Vaccination with SPf66, a chemically synthesized vaccine, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Columbia. Lancet 341, 705710.
  • 51
    Washino RK, Wood BL (1994) Application of remote sensing to arthropod vector surveillance and control. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50 (Suppl. 134), 144.
  • World Health Organization (1975)
    Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Part II. Methods and techniques. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • World Health Organization(1996a)
    Climate change and human health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • World Health Organization(1996b)
    World Health Report 1996: fighting disease fostering development. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • 55
    Yates DN (1996) WatBal – an integrated water balance model for climate impact assessment of river basin runoff. International Journal of Water Resources Development 12, 121139.
  • Yates DN & Strzepek KM (1997) Modeling the Nile Basin under climate change.
    Journal of Hydrological Engineering, ASCE.