1995) How effective is antenatal care to promote maternal and neonatal health? International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 50, S35–S42.
- Alisjabana A (1990) The implementation of the risk approach in maternal and child health services. In
Health care for women and children in developing countries. (eds. HM Wallace & K Giri), Third Party Publishing, Oakland (USA), pp. 382–392.
- Araujo JG & Oliveira FC (1982) The place of caesarean section and choice of method. In
Obstetric problems in the developing world (ed. RH Philpott), W.B. Saunders, London, pp. 757–772.
1997) From public health science to prevention policy: placing science in its social and political contexts. American Journal of Health Planning 87, 1603–1606.
, , (
- Awan AK (1987) Mobilizing TBAs for the control of maternal and neonatal mortality in Pakistan. In
High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention. (eds. AR Omran, J Martin & DM Aviado), Ott, Thun, pp. 340–346.
1960) The evolution of modern obstetrics. Lancet ii, 557–564.
1976) The training and activity of village midwives in the Sudan. Tropical Doctor 6, 118–125.
1998) Monitoring unmet obstetric need at district level in Morocco. Tropical Medicine & International Health 3, 584–591.
, , , (
- Caflish A (1987) Prevention of obstetric mortality in high risk pregnancy. In
High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention. (eds. AR Omran, J Martin & DM Aviado), Ott, Thun, pp. 311–320.
- Chen PCY (1981) Social background, customs and traditions. In
Maternal and child health around the world. (eds. HM Wallace & GJ Ebrahim), Macmillan, London, pp. 71–75.
1980) An audit of antenatal care: the value of the first antenatal visit. British Medical Journal 281, 1184–1186.
, , (
- Crombie IE, Davies HT, Abraham SC & Florey CdV (1993)
The audit handbook. Improving health care through clinical audit. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
1996a) Quels besoins en interventions obstétricales ? Une approche fondée sur l'analyse spatiale des déficits. Revue Epidemiologie et Santé Publique 44, 111–124.
, , (
De Brouwere V, Laabid A & Van Lerberghe W (1996b) Unmet obstetrical need: an operationally relevant concept. In Networking for Research in Reproductive Health. (eds. V De Brouwere & W Van Lerberghe), ITM, Antwerp & European Commission, DGXII, Brussels, pp. 6–27.
De Brouwere V & Van Lerberghe W (1998) Les besoins obstétricaux non couverts. L'Harmattan, Paris.
de Lourdes Verdese M & Turnbull LM (1975) L'accoucheuse traditionnelle dans la protection maternelle et infantile et la planification familiale. Guide pour son instruction et son utilisation. WHO, Geneva.
Dissevelt AG (1978) Integrated maternal and child health services. A study at rural health centre in Kenya. Krips Repro Meppel, Amsterdam.
1996) The value of maternal height as a risk factor of dystocia: a meta-analysis. Tropical Medicine & International Health 1, 510–521.
, , (
Estrada RA (1983) Training and supervision of traditional birth attendants at the primary health care center level. In Primary maternal and neonatal health: a global concern. (eds. F del Mundo, E Ines-Cuyegkeng & DM Aviado), Plenum, New-York, pp. 483–493.
1996) Maternal mortality in Bamako, Mali. 21° Congrès de l'ADELF. Reproductive Epidemiology. Brussels, June 3–5, 1996. Archives of Public Health 53, 48–48. , , , (
Fauveau V & Chakraborty J (1994) Women's health and maternity care in Matlab. In Matlab, women, children and health. (ed. V Fauveau), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, pp. 109–138.
Favin M, Bradford B & Cebula D (1984) Improving maternal health in developing countries. World Federation of Public Health Associations, Geneva.
1992) Maternal health and the measurement trap. Social Science and Medicine 35, 967–977.
1996) Demonstrating programme impact on maternal mortality. Health Policy and Planning 11, 16–20.
, , (
1990) Evaluation of a primary health care programme in The Gambia. I. The impact of trained traditional birth attendants on the outcome of pregnancy. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 58–66.
, , , , , , (
1980) Is routine antenatal care worth while? Lancet 2, 78–80.
, , (
1986) Secular trends in maternal mortality in Sweden from 1750 to 1980. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 64, 79–84.
1986) The impact of early medical technology of maternal mortality in late 19th century Sweden. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 24, 251–261.
, , (
1921) The real risk-rate of death to mothers from causes connected with childbirth. American Journal of Hygiene 1, 197–233. (
- Hyppolito SB (1987) Delegated health activity in rural areas: an experience in North-Brazil. In
High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention. (eds. AR Omran, J Martin & DM Aviado). Ott, Thun, pp. 325–339.
1994) Midwives in Niger: an uncomfortable position between social behaviours and health care constraints. Social Science and Medicine 38, 1069–1073.
- Kasongo Project Team, (1981) Influence of measles vaccination on survival pattern of 7–35-month-old children in Kasongo, Zaire.
Lancet i, 764–767.
- Kasongo Project Team, (1984) Antenatal screening for fetopelvic dystocias. A cost-effectiveness approach to the choice of simple indicators for use by auxiliary personnel.
Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87, 173–183.
1958) Factors in the decline of maternal mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association 168, 237–242.
1994) Programming for Safe Motherhood: a guide to action. Health Policy and Planning 9, 252–266.
, , (
- Kwast BE (1988)
Unsafe motherhood: a monumental challenge. A study of maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Lithoprint Ltd, Leiderdorp.
- Lawson JB & Stewart DB (1967)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the Tropics and Developing Countries. Edward Arnold, London.
- Llewellyn-Jones D (1974)
Human Reproduction and Society. Faber and Faber, London.
1988) Maternal mortality: 1880–1950. Some regional and international comparisons. The Society for the Social History of Medicine 1, 183–227.
Loudon I (1992a) Death in childbirth. An international study of maternal care and maternal mortality 1800–1950. Oxford University Press, London.
1992b) The transformation of maternal mortality. British Medical Journal 305, 1557–1560.
Maine D, McCarthy J & Ward V (1992) Guidelines for monitoring progress in the reduction of maternal mortality. UNICEF, New York.
Maine D, Rosenfield A, McCarthy J, Kamara A & Lucas AO (1991) Safe Motherhood Programs: options and issues. Columbia University, New York.
Mangay-Maglacas A (1990) Traditional birth attendants. In Health care for women and children in developing countries. (eds. HM Wallace & K Giri), Third Party Publishing, Oakland, pp. 229–241.
1996) Is antenatal care effective in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality? Health Policy and Planning 11, 1–15.
Namboze JM (1985) Maternal health services. In Principles and practice of community health in Africa. (eds. GO Sofoluwe & FJ Bennett), University Press, Ibadan, pp. 323–333.
1995) Emergency obstetric care: measuring availability and monitoring progress. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 50, S79–S88.
- Oakley A (1984) The captured womb.
A history of the medical care of pregnant women. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
1994) Women's and health-care providers' views of maternal practices and services in rural Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning 25, 353–361.
1921) Biometric data on infant mortality in the United States Birth Registration Area, 1915–18. American Journal of Hygiene 1, 419–439. (
Pelling M, Berridge V, Harrison M & Weindling P (1993) The era of Public Health, 1848–1918. In Caring for health: history and diversity. (ed. C Webster), Open University Press, London, p. 63–86.
Phuapradit W, Pongthai S, Sudhutoravut S, Chaturachinda K & Benchakan V (1990) Implementation of risk approach in maternal health. In Health care for women and children in developing countries. (eds. HM Wallace & K Giri), Third Party Publishing, Oakland, pp. 242–251.
1985) The response of the New-York Obstetrical Society to the report by the New-York Academy of Medicine on maternal mortality, 1933–34. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 152, 642–649.
Rao KB (1981) Maternity care. In Maternal and child health around the world. (eds. HM Wallace & GJ Ebrahim), Macmillan, London, pp. 76–81.
Richmond JB & Kotelchuck M (1985) Co-ordination and development of strategies and policy – the United States example. In Oxford textbook of public health, Vol. 2: Processes for public health promotion. (eds. W. W Holland, R Detels & G Knox), Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 195–205.
1981) Maternal mortality in the United States of America. World Health Statistics Quarterly 34, 2–13.
1995) Removing risk from safe motherhood. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 50, S3–S10.
1995) Maternal health and the World Bank [letter]. Lancet 346, 1711–1711.
Rosa FW (1981) The status of maternal and child care in developing countries. In Maternal and child health around the world. (eds. HM Wallace & GJ Ebrahim), Macmillan, London, pp. 3–16.
1989) Maternal mortality in developing countries: an ongoing but neglected ‘epidemic’. Journal of the American Medical Association 262, 376–379.
1992) Maternal mortality: community-based interventions. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 38, S17–S22.
1985) Maternal mortality: a neglected tragedy. Where is the M in MCH? Lancet 2, 83–85.
Ross DA (1986) The trained traditional birth attendant and neonatal tetanus. In The potential of the traditional birth attendant. (Eds. A Mangay-Maglacas & J Simons), WHO, Geneva, pp. 8–20.
1992) Safe Motherhood Initiative: getting our priorities straight. Lancet 339, 478–480.
Schmidt WM & Valadian I (1969) Maternal and child health activities. In Principles of Public Health administration. (ed. JJ Hanlon), CV Mosby, St.Louis, pp. 367–381.
1994) Du leurre de la douleur. Autrement 42, 118–127. (
Stanton C, Hill K, AbouZahr C & Wardlaw T (1995) Modelling maternal mortality in the developing world. WHO & UNICEF, Geneva.
1992) The untold story: how the health care systems in developing countries contribute to maternal mortality. International Journal of Health Services 22, 513–528.
1994) Is antenal care apportioned according to obstetric risk ? The Scottish antenal care study. Journal of Public Health Medicine 16, 60–70.
, , , , (
1994) Safe Motherhood. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 46, 145–153.
1998) The host population can benefit from a refugee assistance programme. A spatial analysis of major obstetrical interventions in Guéckédou. Guinea (1988–96) Lancet 351, 1609–1613.
, , , (
1988) Comprehensive can be effective: the influence of coverage with a health centre network on the hospitalisation patterns in the rural area of Kasongo, Zaire. Social Science and Medicine 26, 949–955.
Viegas OA, Singh K & Ratman SS (1987) Antenatal care: when, where, how and how much. In High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention. (eds. AR Omran, J Martin & DM Aviado), Ott, Thun, pp. 287–302.
1994) The impact of maternal health improvement on perinatal survival: cost-effective alternatives. I nternational Journal of Health Planning and Management 9, 131–149.
, , , (
1980) Selective primary health care: an interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. Social Science and Medicine 14, 145–163.
WHO & UNICEF (1996) Revised 1990 estimates of maternal mortality. A new approach by WHO and UNICEF. WHO, Geneva.
WHO (1952) Comité d'experts de la maternité. Premier rapport. Etude préliminaire. SRT n°51, OMS, Geneva, 28p.
WHO (1986) Maternal mortality: helping women off the road to death. WHO Chronicle40, 175–183.
Williams CD, Baumslag N & Jelliffe DB (1985) Mother and child health: delivering the services. Oxford University Press, London.
World Bank (1995) World Development Report 1995. Workers in an integrating world. Oxford University Press, New-York.
1995) Rethinking the role of the risk approach and antenatal care in maternal mortality reduction. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 50, S59–S61.