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Keywords:

  • Sudan;
  • leishmaniasis;
  • kala-azar;
  • PKDL;
  • clinical features;
  • diagnosis;
  • treatment;
  • entomology

Summary

The literature on the leishmaniases in the Sudan is reviewed with an emphasis on clinical aspects and on literature related to the recent outbreaks in the south and east of the country. The numbers of cases of subclinical infection and post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis in the recent outbreaks are remarkable. New diagnostic techniques have been introduced and evaluated, notably the direct agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction technology. The latter gives very promising results and further research into application of the technique is warranted. Treatment with pentavalent antimony is still satisfactory. The reservoir host has not been identified definitely.