Micronutrient and iron supplementation and effective antimalarial treatment synergistically improve childhood anaemia
Article first published online: 25 DEC 2001
Blackwell Science Ltd
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Volume 5, Issue 10, pages 696–705, October 2000
How to Cite
Ekvall, H., Premji, Z. and Björkman, A. (2000), Micronutrient and iron supplementation and effective antimalarial treatment synergistically improve childhood anaemia. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 5: 696–705. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00626.x
- Issue published online: 25 DEC 2001
- Article first published online: 25 DEC 2001
- (1998) Combating micronutrient deficiencies: problems and perspectives. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 137 147.
- (2000) Cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of anaemia and malaria among Tanzanian infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78, 97 107. , , et al.
- (1997) Weekly micronutrient supplementation to build iron stores in female Indonesian adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 177 183. , , , ,
- (1987) Parasites: a Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. ASCP Press, Chicago. &
- (1987) Effect of supplementary vitamins and iron on malaria indices in rural Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 286 291. , , , ,
- (1986) Monthly antimalarial chemotherapy to children in a holoendmic area of Liberia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80, 155 167. , , et al.
- (1985) Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. IV. Its effect on haematological measurements. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79, 585 595. , , et al.
- (1999) The epidemiology of hookworm infection and its contribution to anaemia among pre-school children on the Kenyan coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 240 246. , , et al.
- CDC (1989) CDC criteria for anemia in children and childbearing-aged women. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 8, 400 403.
- (1981) Scurvy and altered iron stores in thalassemia major. New England Journal of Medicine 304, 158 160. , ,
- (1971) The solubility test for HbS: a cheap and rapid method. Medical Laboratory Technology 28, 373 376. &
- (1986) Iron deficiency in the weanling: a nutritional problem on the way to resolution. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Supplement 323, 59 67.
- (1993) Iron deficiency and related nutritional anemias. In: Hematology of Infancy and Childhood Vol. 1 (eds DG Nathan & FA Oski), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 413 450. , ,
- (1998) Chloroquine treatment for uncomplicated childhood malaria in an area with drug resistance: early treatment failure aggravates anaemia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92, 556 560. , ,
- (1985) Further studies in rats on the influence of previous iron intake on the estimation of bioavailability of Fe. British Journal of Nutrition 54, 79 86. , ,
- (1982) Anaemia in childhood in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 2, 161 173. &
- (1958) Hypochromic anemias of the tropics associated with pyridoxine and nicotinic acid deficiencies. Blood 13, 1054 1060. &
- (1983) The effects of organic acids, phytates and polyphenols on the absorption of iron from vegetables. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 331 342. , , et al.
- (1997) The epidemiology of malaria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 91, 763 769.
- (1995) Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89, 629 633. , , et al.
- (1988) Comparison of two strategies for control of malaria within a primary health care programme in The Gambia. Lancet 1, 1121 1127. , , et al.
- (1986) Effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from different types of meals. Studies with ascorbic-acid-rich foods and synthetic ascorbic acid given in different amounts with different meals. Human Nutrients and Applied Nutrition 40, 97 113. , ,
- (1992) Molecular epidemiology of the thalassaemias (including haemoglobin E). Baillieres Clinical Haematology 5, 209 238.
- (1995) Iron absorption from the whole diet. Relation to meal composition, iron requirements and iron stores. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 794 808. , , ,
- (1993) Reversal of developmental delays in iron-deficient anaemic infants treated with iron. Lancet 341, 1 4. &
- (1999) Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia with a combined supplementation of iron, vitamin A and zinc in women of Dinajpur, Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 102 106. , , ,
- (1997) Reversible suppression of bone marrow response to erythropoietin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. British Journal of Haematology 97, 169 174. , , , , ,
- (1963) The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 22, 882 887. &
- (1992) Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomedical Environmental Science 5, 125 129. &
- (1956) Effects of heavy and repeated malaria infections in Gambian infants and children: effects of erythrocytic parasitization. British Medical Journal ii, 686 694. , , , ,
- (1966) Haemoglobin concentration and anaemia in young West African (Gambian) children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60, 650 667. , , ,
- (1988) Hematological effect of supplementing anemic children with vitamin A alone and in combination with iron. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 595 600. &
- (1997) Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 350, 844 850. , , et al.
- (1990) Sustained protection against mortality and morbidity from malaria in rural Gambian children by chemoprophylaxis given by village health workers. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 768 772. , , , , ,
- (1999) Plasmodium falciparum Infection: Influence on Hemoglobin Levels in alpha-Thalassemia and Microcytosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180, 925 928. , , et al.
- (1977) Hematological studies in vitamin A deficient children. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 47, 389 393. , ,
- (1978) The adverse effect of iron repletion on the course of certain infections. British Medical Journal 2, 1113 1115. , , ,
- National Research Council (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
- (1997) Severe anaemia in children living in a malaria endemic area of Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 165 178. , , et al.
- (2000) Integrated management of childhood illness in resource-poor countries: an initiative from the World Health Organization. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94, 9 11.
- (1996) Effect of improved vitamin A status on response to iron supplementation in Pakistani infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 694 699. , , ,
- (1996) The effect of oral iron therapy during treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on Malawian children under 5 years of age. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 589 595. , , , , ,
- (1998) Iron and infection in the tropics: paediatric clinical correlates. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 18 (Suppl.), S81 87.
- (1986) Iron supplementation increases prevalence and effects of malaria: report on clinical studies in Papua New Guinea. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 603 612. , , et al.
- (1987) The interaction of alpha thalassaemia with malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 322 326. , , , , ,
- (1993) Differential diagnosis of anemia. In: Hematology of Infancy and Childhood Vol. 1 (eds DG Nathan & FA Oski), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 346 353.
- (1997) Effective community intervention to improve hemoglobin status in preschoolers receiving once-weekly iron supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1057 1061. , , ,
- (1987) Micronutrient deficiencies in the aetiology of anaemia in a rural area in The Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 421 425. &
- (1997) Importance of adequate vitamin A status during iron supplementation. Nutrition Reviews 55, 306 307.
- (1992) Vitamin A status: relationship to immunity and the antibody response. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 200, 303 320.
- (1977) Iron absorption from infant milk formula and the optimal level of iron supplementation. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 66, 719 722. &
- (1999) African children with malaria in an area of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission: features on admission to the hospital and risk factors for death. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61, 431 438. , , et al.
- (1995) Evaluation of the impact of iron treatment. Interference of malaria. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 88, 260 264. , , , ,
- (1995) Effect of daily vs twice weekly iron supplementation in Indonesian preschool children with low iron status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 111 115. , , , ,
- (1995) Correction of anemia and iron deficiency in vegetarians by administration of ascorbic acid. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 39, 403 406. &
- (1999) Intermittent sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to prevent severe anaemia secondary to malaria in pregnancy: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 353, 632 636. , , et al.
- (1989) The effects on malaria of treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia with oral iron in Gambian children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 9, 17 23. , , , ,
- (1997) Serum ferritin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin and hemoglobin are valid indicators of iron status of school children in a malaria-holoendemic population. Journal of Nutrition 127, 293 298. , , , , ,
- (1993) Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet 342, 1325 1328. , , ,
- Tanzania (1997) Guidelines for the Management of Malaria. Ministry of Health, National Malaria Control Programme, Dar es Salaam.
- (1998) Low dietary iron availability is a major cause of anemia: a nutrition survey in the Lindi District of Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 171 178. , ,
- (1999) Effect of daily and weekly micronutrient supplementation on micronutrient deficiencies and growth in young Vietnamese children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 80 86. , , , , ,
- (1993) Coordinated strategies for controlling micronutrient malnutrition: a technical workshop. Journal of Nutrition 123, 775 787. , , et al.
- (1996) Does iron therapy benefit children with severe malaria-associated anaemia? A clinical trial with 12 weeks supplementation of oral iron in young children from the Turiani Division, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 42, 220 227. , ,
- (1995) Iron, but not folic acid, combined with effective antimalarial therapy promotes haematological recovery in African children after acute falciparum malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89, 672 676. , , et al.
- (1977) Anaemia treatment trials in a rural population of Tanzania. Tropical Geographical Medicine 29, 369 373. , , , , ,
- (1997) Parasitological and haematological responses to treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Malawi. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 91, 133 140. , , , , ,
- (1995) True absorption and retention of supplemental iron is more efficient when iron is administered every three days rather than daily to iron- normal and iron-deficient rats. Journal of Nutrition 125, 82 91. , , ,
- WHO (1996) Assessment of therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in areas with intense transmission. WHO/MAL/96.1077.World Health Organization, Geneva.
- (1989) Vitamin d-deficiency rickets and myelofibrosis. Journal of Pediatrics 114, 213 217. , , , ,