• 1
    Alary M & Baganizi E et al . (1998) Evaluation of clinical algorithms for the diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among men with urethral discharge or dysuria and women with vaginal discharge. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S44S49.
  • 2
    Anonymous (1997) Confronting AIDS. Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. New York. Oxford University Press.
  • 3
    Behets FM & Andriamahenina R et al. (1996) High syphilis and low but rising HIV seroprevalence rates in Madagascar. Lancet 347, 831831.
  • 4
    Behets FM & Williams Y et al. (1995) Management of vaginal discharge in women treated at a Jamaican sexually transmitted disease clinic: use of diagnostic algorithms versus laboratory testing. Clinical Infectious Diseases 21, 14501455.
  • 5
    Caldwell JC (1993) Health Transition: The Cultural, Social and Behavioural Determinants of Health in the Third World. Social Science and Medicine 36, 125135.
  • 6
    Cates W & Burnham RC (1999) Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (eds. KK Holmes et al.) McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 1079–1087.
  • 7
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1998) 1998 guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR – Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 47, 1111.
  • 8
    Chard J & Lilford L et al. (1999) Looking beyond the next patient: sociology and modern health care. Lancet 353, 486489.DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(98)07304-8
  • 9
    Cohen MS & Henderson GE et al. (1996) Successful Eradication of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the People’s Republic of China. Implications for the 21st Century. Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, S223S229.
  • 10
    Costello Daly C & Wangel AM et al. (1998) Validation of the WHO diagnostic algorithm and development of an alternative scoring system for the management of women presenting with vaginal discharge in Malawi. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S50S58.
  • 11
    Day S & Ward H (1997) Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease. Genitourinary Medicine 73, 161168.
  • 12
    Decosas J & Pedneault V (1996) Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases through Individual- and Population-Based Public Health Approaches: Social and Political Implications. Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, S248S252.
  • 13
    Duncan ME & Tibaux G et al. (1994) A socio-economic, clinical and serological study in an African city of prostitutes and women still married to their first husband. Social Science & Medicine 39, 323333.
  • 14
    Ericksen K & Brunette T (1996) Patterns and predictors of infertility among African women: a cross-national survey of twenty-seven nations. Social Science & Medicine 42, 209220.DOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(95)00087-9
  • 15
    Greenberg J & Magder L et al. (1991) Age at First Coitus. A Marker for Risky Sexual Behaviour in Women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 19, 331334.
  • 16
    Grosskurth H & Mosha F et al. (1995) Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 346, 530536.
  • 17
    Harms G & Kirsch T et al. (1994) HIV and syphilis in Madagascar [letter]. Aids 8, 279280.DOI: 10.1006/csla.1994.1015
  • 18
    Harms G & Matull R et al. (1994) Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in a Malagasy population. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 21, 315320.
  • 19
    Hillier SL (1999) Normal vaginal flora. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (eds. KK Holmes et al.) McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 191–203.
  • 20
    Hitchcock P & Fransen L (1999) Preventing HIV infection: lessons from Mwanza and Rakai. Lancet 353, 513515.DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(99)00031-8
  • 21
    Horn JE & McQuillan GM et al. (1990) Reproductive health practices in women attending an inner-city STD clinic. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 17, 133137.
  • 22
    Krieger JN & Alderete JF (1999) Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomoniasis. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (eds. KK Holmes et al.) McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 587–604.
  • 23
    Laumann EO & Gagnon JH et al. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality. Sexual Practices in the United States. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
  • 24
    Mayaud P & Ka-Gina G et al. (1998) Validation of a WHO algorithm with risk assessment for the clinical management of vaginal discharge in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S77S84.
  • 25
    Miller K & Rosenfield A (1996) Population and Women’s Reproductive Health: an International Perspective. Annual Review of Public Health 17, 359382.
  • 26
    Moherdaui F & Vuylsteke B et al. (1998) Validation of national algorithms for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil: results from a multicentre study. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S38S43.
  • 27
    Over M & Piot P (1996) Human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries: public health importance and priorities for resource allocation. Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, S162S175.
  • 28
    Ruffner DC & Jerse AE (1999) Inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Lactobacillys Species That Are Commonly Isolated from the Female Genital Tract. Thirteenth Meeting of the International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research, Denver, Colorado.
  • 29
    Ryan CA & Zidouh A et al. (1998) Reproductive tract infections in primary health-care, family planning, and dermatovenereology clinics: evaluation of syndromic management in Morocco. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S95S105.
  • 30
    Sanchez SE & Koutsky LE et al. (1998) Rapid and inexpensive approaches to managing vaginal discharge or lower abdominal pain: an evaluation in women attending gynaecology and family planning clinics in Peru. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, S85S94.
  • 31
    Sewankambo N & Gray RH et al. (1997) HIV-1 infection associated with abnormal vaginal flora morphology and bacterial vaginosis. Lancet 350, 546550.DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)01063-5
  • 32
    Sun GW & Shook TL et al. (1996) Inappropriate use of bivariable analysis to screen risk factors for use in multivariable analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 49, 907916.DOI: 10.1016/0895-4356(96)00025-x
  • 33
    Temmerman M & Kidula N et al. (1998) The supermarket for women’s reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 74, 202204.
  • 34
    Wasserheit JN & Holmes KK (1992) Reproductive tract infections: challenges for international health policy, programs, and research. In: Reproductive Tract Infections (ed. A Germain et al.) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 7–33.
  • 35
    WHO (1994). Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO, Geneva.
  • 36
    Wilkinson D & Ndovela N et al. (1997) Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections? Genitourinary Medicine 73, 558560.
  • 37
    Zeller HG & Ramamonjisoa A et al. (1997) HIV infection in Madagascar in 1995. Aids 11, 401402.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1085(19970330)11:4<401::aid-hyp447>;2-p