Cryptosporidium isolates from diarrhoeal stools of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Thailand were genetically analysed by sequencing the variable region in the 18S rRNA gene. Twenty-nine isolates from four children and 25 adults attending King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok during 1996 and 2000 were analysed. All patients suffered from chronic watery diarrhoea and had low CD4+ lymphocytes (mean ± SD=105.5 ± 133.2 cells/μl). Four Cryptosporidium species were identified, i.e. C. parvum (genotype 1), C. meleagridis, C. muris and C. felis occurring in 24, 3, 1 and 1 isolates, respectively. Oocysts of C. muris were significantly larger than oocysts of other species; C. felis was the smallest in these populations (P < 0.01). Sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 regions of C. muris and C. meleagridis identified in this study displayed unique sequences from those of other known species. Based on a limited number of isolates analysed, only C. meleagridis and C. muris were found in HIV-infected children, whereas the genotype 1 of C. parvum predominated in HIV-infected adults.