Members of the the Study Group on Heterogeneity of HIV Epidemics in African Cities: A Buvé (coordinator), M Laga, E Van Dyck, W Janssens, L Heyndricks (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium); S Anagonou (Programme National de Lutte contre le SIDA, Benin); M Laourou (Institut National de Statistiques et d'Analyses Economiques, Benin); L Kanhonou (Centre de Recherche en Reproduction Humaine et en Démographie, Benin); E Akam, M de Loenzien (Institut de Formation et de Recherche Démographiques, Cameroon); S-C Abega (Université Catholique d'Afrique Centrale, Cameroon); L Zekeng (Programme de Lutte contre le SIDA, Cameroon); J Chege (The Population Council, Kenya); V Kimani, J Olenja (University of Nairobi, Kenya); MKahindo (National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Kenya); FKaona, R Musonda, T Sukwa (Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Zambia); N Rutenberg (The Population Council, USA); BAuvert, E Lagarde (INSERM U88, France); B Ferry, N Lydié (Centre francais sur la population et le développement, France); RHayes, L Morison, H Weiss, J Glynn (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK); NJ Robinson (Glaxo Wellcome, UK); M Caraël (UNAIDS, Switzerland).
Socioeconomic status and risk of HIV infection in an urban population in Kenya
Article first published online: 10 SEP 2002
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Volume 7, Issue 9, pages 793–802, September 2002
How to Cite
Hargreaves, J. R., Morison, L. A., Chege, J., Rutenburg, N., Kahindo, M., Weiss, H. A., Hayes, R., Buvé, A. and for the Study Group on Heterogeneity of HIV Epidemics in African Cities (2002), Socioeconomic status and risk of HIV infection in an urban population in Kenya. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 7: 793–802. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00943.x
- Issue published online: 10 SEP 2002
- Article first published online: 10 SEP 2002
- heterosexual transmission;
- HIV prevalence;
- risk factors;
- socioeconomic status
Objective To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), risk factors for HIV infection and HIV status in an urban population with high prevalence of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa.
Methods Cross-sectional population survey of adults from the city of Kisumu, Kenya, in 1996. Around 1000 men and 1000 women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and most gave a venous blood sample for HIV testing. SES was represented by a composite variable of educational status, occupation and household utilities. Multiple regression was used to examine whether SES was associated with HIV infection or with risk factors for HIV infection.
Results Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 19.8% in males and 30.2% in females. Higher SES was associated with a more mobile lifestyle, later sexual debut and marriage among both sexes, and with circumcision among men aged 25–49 and condom use among women aged 25–49. Higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of HIV infection and were more common amongst those of higher SES. HSV-2 infection was strongly associated with an increased risk of HIV infection and was more common among those of lower SES. HIV was associated with a lower SES among females aged 15–24 whereas in males aged 15–24 and females aged 25–49 there was some indication that it was associated with higher SES. Among males aged 25–49 there was no association between HIV infection and SES.
Conclusions Risk of infection was high among groups of all SES. Risk profiles suggested men and women of lower SES maybe at greater risk of newly acquired HIV infection. New infections may now be occurring fastest among young women of the lowest SES.