• Allen S, Lindan C, Serufilira A et al. (1991) Human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban Rwanda. Demographic and behavioral correlates in a representative sample of childbearing women. Journal of the American Medical Association 266, 16571663.
  • Auvert B, Buve A, Ferry B et al. (2001a) Ecological and individual level analysis of risk factors for HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection. AIDS 15 (Suppl. 4), S15S30.
  • Auvert B, Buve A, Lagarde E et al. (2001b) Male circumcision and HIV infection in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 15 (Suppl. 4), S31S40.
  • Bassett MT, McFarland WC, Ray S et al. (1996) Risk factors for HIV infection at enrollment in an urban male factory cohort inHarare, Zimbabwe. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 13, 287293.
  • Berkley SF, Widy-Wirski R, Okware SI et al. (1989) Risk factors associated with HIV infection in Uganda. Journal of Infectious Diseases 160, 2230.
  • Buve A, Carael M, Hayes R et al. (2001a) Multicentre study on factors determining differences in rate of spread of HIV in sub-Saharn Africa: methods and prevalence of HIV infection. AIDS 15 (Suppl. 4), S5S14.
  • Buve A, Lagarde E, Carael M et al. (2001b) Interpreting sexual behaviour data: validity issues in the multicentre study on factors determining the differential spread of HIV in four African cities. AIDS 15 (Suppl. 4), S117S126.
  • Cameron E (2000) The deafening silence of AIDS. Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture, XIIIth International AIDS Conference. Abstract MoOr 1.
  • Dallabetta GA, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD et al. (1993) High socioeconomic status is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but not for sexually transmitted diseases in women in Malawi: implications for HIV-1 control. Journal of Infectious Diseases 167, 3642.
  • Epstein AL (1981) Urbanization and Kinship: the Domestic Domain on the Copperbelt of Zambia, 1950–56. Academic Press, London.
  • Fylkesnes K, Mubanga MR, Kasumba K et al. (1997) The HIV epidemic in Zambia: socio-demographic prevalence patterns and indications of trends among childbearing women. AIDS 11, 339345.
  • Fylkesnes K, Musonda RM, Sichone M et al. (2001) Declining HIV prevalence and risk behaviours in Zambia: evidence from surveillance and population-based surveys. AIDS 15, 907916.
  • Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J et al. (1995) A community trial of the impact of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment on the HIV epidemic in rural Tanzania: 2. Baseline survey results. AIDS 9, 927934.
  • Hargreaves JR & Glynn JR (2000) Educational attainment and HIV infection in developing countries; a systematic review. XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban.
  • Kilian AH, Gregson S, Ndyanabangi B et al. (1999) Reductions in risk behaviour provide the most consistent explanation for declining HIV-1 prevalence in Uganda. AIDS 13, 391398.
  • Killewo JZJ, Sandstrom A, Bredberg R et al. (1993) Incidence of HIV-1 infection among adults in the Kagera region of Tanzania. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 528536.
  • Lagarde E, Carael M, Glynn JR et al. (2001) Educational level is associated with condom use within non-spousal partnerships infour cities of sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 15, 13991408.
  • Obasi A, Mosha F & Quigley M (2000) Antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 as a marker of sexual risk behaviour in rural Tanzania. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179, 1624.
  • Over M & Piot P (1993) HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. In: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (eds DTJamison, WHMosley, ARMensham & JLBobadilla). Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 455527.
  • Ryder RW, Ndilu M, Hassig SE et al. (1990) Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 among employees and their spouses at two large businesses in Zaire. AIDS 4, 725732.
  • Seeley JA, Malamba SS, Nunn AJ et al. (1994) Socioeconomic status, gender and risk of HIV infection in a rural community in South West Uganda. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 8, 7889.
  • Smith J, Nalagoda F, Wawer MJ et al. (1999) Education attainment as a predictor of HIV risk in rural Uganda: results from a population-based study. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS 10, 452459.
  • Victora CG, Huttly SR, Fuchs SR & Olinto MTA (1997) The roleof conceptual frameworks in epidemiological analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 26, 224227.
  • Weiss HA, Buve A, Robinson NJ et al. (2001) The epidemiology of HSV-2 infection and its association with HIV infection in four urban African populations. AIDS 15 (Suppl. 4), S97S108.