Malaria and property accumulation in rice production systems in the savannah zone of Côte d'Ivoire


  • 1

    The selected sample of farmers and their members, is common to all disciplines. The detailed sampling method is described by Briët et al. (2003).

  • 2

    They obtain the right from men to cultivate their own plots (Dey Abbas 1997).

  • 3

    In matrilinear societies with matrilocal residence, the woman does not live in the village of her husband. She remains in the village of her mother, that is the village of her maternal uncle. She will work on the farms of the maternal family and on her own fields (Holas 1957).

  • 4

    Traditionally, women do not plow. They do it manually only if they cultivate their own farms. Dey Abbas (1997) shows that although in theory women can use their resources as they want, in practice, due to men's pressure, they are less motivated to improve and invest in performing agricultural equipment.

  • 5

    Instead of the age structure of the households, we considered dependents (family members aged 0 and 10 and 55 and above and the rate).

  • 6

    Food crops (rice, maize, yams) are essentially meant for local consumption.

  • 7

    Food crop productions are estimated in non-homogeneous units and hardly convertible into standard units of measure unless the production is systematically weighted. For instance, maize production is estimated in ‘bunches’, a sort of braid of maize ears, which is then stocked suspended on trees or hurdles.

  • 8

    Ethnic sub-groups and religion are those of the heads of family. With few exceptions, they are almost the same as those of family members.

  • 9

    The mean size of the families depends on the religion. On the entire sample, the mean size of the family is 9.5 (SD = 6.7) among Muslims, 8.5 (SD = 4.6) among Christians and 7.3 (SD = 4.8) among animists (the difference is significant, < 0.0001).

  • 10

    Whether the head is a man or a woman.

  • 11

    Its role as a productive factor (milk, meat and fertilizer) is of secondary importance; oxen (used to plough) were registered as part of the capital investment.

  • 12

    This relation could be linked with the resistance of mosquito to insecticide.

  • 13

    Data comply with linear models (Wald test highly significant). More flexible forms like the quadratic form in the income and age of the head of the household do not increase explanative power of regressions.

  • 14

    Livestock acquisition is after all an act of capital saving. Also, the older the head of family, the higher the probability he possess a large livestock.

  • 15

    Asked about their relative low economic results, households in R2 explained that double cropping was exhausting, a reason why they were less productive than producers in R1 (De Plaen et al. 2003).


Irrigation stabilizes agricultural production and hence improves farmers’ living standards and conditions. The permanent presence of water may, however, increase the burden of water-related parasitic diseases and counter the economic benefits of irrigation by reducing farmers’ health. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of malaria on farm household property, beyond the health risk (studied elsewhere). The research question was: by weakening individuals, does malaria reduce productive capacities and income workers, and consequently limit their property accumulation? To test this hypothesis, we use data on property (farming equipment, livestock and durable consumer goods) and Plasmodium falciparum indicators generated by a study carried out in 1998 in the Ivorian savannah zone characterized by inland valley rice cultivation, with a sample of nearly 750 farming households. Property is influenced by many factors related to the size of the family, the area under cultivation and high parasite density infection rate of P. falciparum. A significant negative correlation between high-density infection rate and the property values confirms that by reducing the living standards of households, malaria is a limiting factor for property accumulation.