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Abstract

Background  Keloids are notoriously difficult to treat. A variety of treatment modalities are currently in use, indicating that none is totally satisfactory. Surface cryosurgery is effective for smaller keloids, but not for larger ones. It often results in widespread depigmentation over the surface of the keloids, which may not be desirable, especially in patients with dark skin.

Objectives  To determine the efficacy of intralesional (IL) cryosurgery in large, bulky keloids unresponsive to IL steroids, and to observe the extent of depigmentation and other complications produced by the technique.

Methods  Twelve patients with large, bulky, symptomatic keloids unresponsive to at least five injections of IL triamcinolone acetonide were included in the study. The age of the patients and the duration of the keloids were in the range 19–50 years and 1–12 years, respectively. The IL cryosurgery device was assembled using a small liquid nitrogen Dewar cylinder, a rubber and a plastic tube taken from a drip-set, adhesive tape, and hypodermic and lumbar puncture needles. The lumbar puncture or injection needle was introduced through the lesion until it appeared at the other side. Liquid nitrogen was then passed through the needle. The freezing time was between 20 and 30 s. The procedure was repeated for a second freeze–thaw cycle in the same session.

Results  The patients underwent a minimum of five up to a maximum of 10 sessions of IL cryosurgery. Seven out of 12 patients showed > 75% flattening. Depigmentation was observed along the tracks of the needles in all the patients, which improved during follow-up due to pigment spread from the normally pigmented areas in between. At the end of follow-up, 1–25% of the area remained hypo- or depigmented in four patients, 26–50% in six patients, and 51–75% in the remaining two patients.

Conclusions  IL cryosurgery should be the preferred mode of therapy for large, bulky keloids, which are unresponsive to IL steroids.