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Episodic accretion in magnetically layered protoplanetary discs


  • †Present address: School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS.

★ Present address: School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS.† E-mail:


We study protoplanetary disc evolution assuming that angular momentum transport is driven by gravitational instability at large radii, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the hot inner regions. At radii of the order of 1 au such discs develop a magnetically layered structure, with accretion occurring in an ionized surface layer overlying quiescent gas that is too cool to sustain MHD turbulence. We show that layered discs are subject to a limit cycle instability, in which accretion on to the protostar occurs in ∼104-yr bursts with Ṁ∼10−5 M yr−1, separated by quiescent intervals lasting ∼105 yr where Ṁ≈10−8 M yr−1. Such bursts could lead to repeated episodes of strong mass outflow in young stellar objects. The transition to this episodic mode of accretion occurs at an early epoch (t≪1 Myr), and the model therefore predicts that many young pre-main-sequence stars should have low rates of accretion through the inner disc. At ages of a few Myr, the discs are up to an order of magnitude more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula, with most of the mass locked up in the quiescent layer of the disc at r∼1 au. The predicted rate of low-mass planetary migration is reduced at the outer edge of the layered disc, which could lead to an enhanced probability of giant planet formation at radii of 1–3 au.