1 The GIF project is a joint effort by astrophysicists in Germany and Israel.
Populating a cluster of galaxies – I. Results at
Version of Record online: 4 APR 2002
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 328, Issue 3, pages 726–750, December 2001
How to Cite
Springel, V., White, S. D. M., Tormen, G. and Kauffmann, G. (2001), Populating a cluster of galaxies – I. Results at . Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328: 726–750. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04912.x
2 We employ the convention .
3 In this paper, we use capital ‘M’ to denote magnitudes and lowercase ‘m’ for masses.
- Issue online: 4 APR 2002
- Version of Record online: 4 APR 2002
- Accepted 2001 August 9. Received 2001 August 3; in original form 2000 December 8
- galaxies: clusters: general;
- galaxies: formation;
- dark matter
We simulate the assembly of a massive rich cluster and the formation of its constituent galaxies in a flat, low-density universe. Our most accurate model follows the collapse, the star formation history and the orbital motion of all galaxies more luminous than the Fornax dwarf spheroidal, while dark halo structure is tracked consistently throughout the cluster for all galaxies more luminous than the SMC. Within its virial radius this model contains about dark matter particles and almost 5000 distinct dynamically resolved galaxies. Simulations of this same cluster at a variety of resolutions allow us to check explicitly for numerical convergence both of the dark matter structures produced by our new parallel N-body and substructure identification codes, and of the galaxy populations produced by the phenomenological models we use to follow cooling, star formation, feedback and stellar aging. This baryonic modelling is tuned so that our simulations reproduce the observed properties of isolated spirals outside clusters. Without further parameter adjustment our simulations then produce a luminosity function, a mass-to-light ratio, luminosity, number and velocity dispersion profiles, and a morphology–radius relation which are similar to those observed in real clusters. In particular, since our simulations follow galaxy merging explicitly, we can demonstrate that it accounts quantitatively for the observed cluster population of bulges and elliptical galaxies.