• Open Access

Do Internet interventions for consumers cause more harm than good? A systematic review

Authors

  • Tracey L. Bessell BPharm MPH,

    1. PhD Candidate, Monash Institute of Health Services Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Australia,
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  • Steve McDonald MA,

    1. Research Fellow, Australasian Cochrane Centre, Monash Institute of Health Services Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Australia,
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  • Chris A. Silagy AO MBBS PhD FRACGP FAFPHM,

    1. Director, Monash Institute of Health Services Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Australia,
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  • Jeremy N. Anderson MB ChB MSc(Epid.) MD FRANZCP,

    1. Director, Centre for Clinical Effectiveness, Monash Institute of Health Services Research, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Australia,
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  • Janet E. Hiller BA DipSocSt MPH PhD,

    1. Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia,
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  • Lloyd N. Sansom DipPharm BSc PhD

    1. Emeritus Professor, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Australia
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Tracey L. Bessell Monash Institute of Health Services Research Monash Medical Centre Locked Bag 29 Clayton VIC 3168 Australia E-mail: tracey.bessell@med.monash.edu.au

Abstract

Objective To systematically review the effect of consumer use of online health information on decision-making, attitudes, knowledge, satisfaction and health outcomes and utilization.

Search strategy Electronic databases searched included the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE (to 14 March 2001), CINAHL, Australian Medical Index, Health and Society, National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Database and CenterWatch.

Inclusion criteria All post-1995 comparative studies (including controlled studies, before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses) of Internet users vs. non-Internet users and other communications mediums, and Internet characteristics such as e-mail vs. other communication mediums, were included. Outcomes included consumer decision-making, attitudes, knowledge, satisfaction and measurable changes in health status or health utilization.

Data extraction and synthesis One reviewer screened all papers then two reviewers independently assessed studies against the selection criteria and any discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. No attempt was made to combine the data for further statistical analysis.

Main results We identified 10 comparative studies. Studies evaluated the effectiveness of using the Internet to deliver a smoking cessation programme, cardiac and nutrition educational programmes, behavioural interventions for headache and weight loss, and pharmacy and augmentative services. All studies showed some positive effects on health outcomes, although the methodological quality of many studies was poor.

Conclusions Despite widespread consumer Internet use to obtain health-care information, there is almost a complete lack of evidence of any effects this may have on health outcomes.

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