AAK1-Mediated μ2 Phosphorylation is Stimulated by Assembled Clathrin


Sandra L. Schmid, slschmid@scripps.edu


AAK1, the adaptor-associated kinase 1, phosphorylates the μ2 subunit of AP2 and regulates the recruitment of AP2 to tyrosine-based internalization motifs found on membrane-bound receptors. AAK1 overexpression specifically inhibits the AP2-dependent internalization of transferrin receptor and LDL-receptor related protein by functionally sequestering AP2 (Conner and Schmid. J Cell Biol 2003; 162: 773). However, while AAK1 stably associates with AP2 and specifically targets the μ2 subunit in vitro, μ2 phosphorylation in vivo was not altered by overexpression of either wild-type or kinase-inactive AAK1. These results suggested that AAK1 might be tightly regulated in the cell. Here, we report that AAK1 is an atypical kinase that is rate limited by its stable association with AP2 and that clathrin stimulates μ2 phosphorylation by AAK1. Efficient stimulation of AAK1 by clathrin involves multiple interactions between several domains on AAK1 and both heavy and light chains on clathrin. Importantly, incubation of AAK1 with clathrin cages resulted in even greater stimulation when compared to that of unassembled clathrin triskelia. Collectively, our observations indicate that clathrin function is not limited to structural and/or mechanical roles in endocytic vesicle formation: the stimulatory effects of clathrin on AAK1 activity argue that it also plays a regulatory role by modulating the activity of AP2 complexes through activation of AAK1. We suggest a model in which AAK1 is specifically activated in coated pits to enhance cargo recruitment and efficient internalization.