• 1
    Aalberse RC. Structural biology of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 228238.
  • 2
    Aalberse RC, Akkerdaas J, van Ree R. Cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to allergens. Allergy 2001;56: 478490.
  • 3
    Weber RW. Patterns of pollen cross-allergenicity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 229239.
  • 4
    Sicherer SH. Clinical implications of cross-reactive food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: 881890.
  • 5
    Valenta R, Duchene M, Pettenburger K, Sillaber C, Valent P, Bettelheim P et al. Identification of profilin as a novel pollen allergen; IgE autoreactivity in sensitized individuals. Science 1991;253: 557560.
  • 6
    Crameri R, Faith A, Hemmann S, Jaussi R, Ismail C, Menz G et al. Humoral and cell-mediated autoimmunity in allergy to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Exp Med 1996;184: 265270.
  • 7
    Ferreira F, Hirtenlehner K, Jilek A, Godnik-Cvar J, Breiteneder H, Grimm R et al. Dissection of immunoglobulin E and T lymphocyte reactivity of isoforms of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1: potential use of hypoallergenic isoforms for immunotherapy. J Exp Med 1996;183: 599609.
  • 8
    Mari A. Multiple pollen sensitization: a molecular approach to the diagnosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;125: 5765.
  • 9
    Ferreira F, Wallner M, Breiteneder H, Hartl A, Thalhamer J, Ebner C. Genetic engineering of allergens: future therapeutic products. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128: 171178.
  • 10
    Fernandes J, Reshef A, Patton L, Ayuso R, Reese G, Lehrer SB. Immunoglobulin E antibody reactivity to the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, in unexposed Orthodox Jews. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33: 956961.
  • 11
    de Groot H, van Swieten P, Aalberse RC. Evidence for a Fel d I-like molecule in the ‘‘big cats’’ (Felidae species). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86: 107116.
  • 12
    Mari A, Wallner M, Ferreira F. Fagales pollen sensitization in a birch-free area: a respiratory cohort survey using Fagales pollen extracts and birch recombinant allergens (rBet v 1,rBet v 2, rBet v 4). Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33: 14191428.
  • 13
    Lodrup Carlsen KC, Carlsen KH, Buchmann MS, Wikstrom J, Mehl R. Cockroach sensitivity in Norway: a previously unidentified problem? Allergy 2002;57: 529533.
  • 14
    Mari A. Skin test with a timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract vs IgE to a timothy extract vs IgE to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12: epidemiological and diagnostic data. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33: 4351.
  • 15
    Hanninen AR, Mikkola JH, Kalkkinen N, Turjanmaa K, Ylitalo L, Reunala T et al. Increased allergen production in turnip (Brassica rapa) by treatments activating defense mechanisms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 194201.
  • 16
    Midoro-Horiuti T, Brooks EG, Goldblum RM. Pathogenesis-related proteins of plants as allergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87: 261271.
  • 17
    Breiteneder H, Ebner C. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 2736.
  • 18
    Yagami T. Allergies to cross-reactive plant proteins. Latex-fruit syndrome is comparable with pollen-food allergy syndrome. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128: 271279.
  • 19
    Hoffmann-Sommergruber K. Pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins identified as allergens. Biochem Soc Trans 2002;30: 930935.
  • 20
    Gough L, Schulz O, Sewell HF, Shakib F. The cysteine protease activity of the major dust mite allergen Der p 1 selectively enhances the immunoglobulin E antibody response. J Exp Med 1999;190: 18971902.
  • 21
    Wan H, Winton HL, Soeller C, Tovey ER, Gruenert DC, Thompson PJ et al. Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions. J Clin Invest 1999;104: 123133.
  • 22
    Bredehorst R, David K. What establishes a protein as an allergen? J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001;756: 3340.
  • 23
    Markovic-Housley Z, Degano M, Lamba D, Roepenack-Lahaye E, Clemens S, Susani M et al. Crystal structure of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its likely biological function as a plant steroid carrier. J Mol Biol 2003;325: 123133.
  • 24
    Mogensen JE, Wimmer R, Larsen JN, Spangfort MD, Otzen DE. The major birch allergen, Bet v 1, shows affinity for a broad spectrum of physiological ligands. J Biol Chem 2002;277: 23 68423 692.
  • 25
    Neudecker P, Schweimer K, Nerkamp J, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Sticht H et al. Allergic cross-reactivity made visible: the solution structure of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1. J Biol Chem 2001;276: 22 75622 763.
  • 26
    Ferreira F, Ebner C, Kramer B, Casari G, Briza P, Kungl AJ et al. Modulation of IgE reactivity of allergens by site-directed mutagenesis: potential use of hypoallergenic variants for immunotherapy. FASEB J 1998;12: 231242.
  • 27
    Ferreira F, Hebenstreit D, Kramer B, Himly M, Breiteneder H, Scheiner O et al. Amino acid positions involved in the formation of IgE-binding epitopes of Api g 1 and Mal d 1 allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105: S137.
  • 28
    Son DY, Scheurer S, Hoffmann A, Haustein D, Vieths S. Pollen-related food allergy: cloning and immunological analysis of isoforms and mutants of Mal d 1, the major apple allergen, and Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. Eur J Nutr 1999;38: 201215.
  • 29
    Scheurer S, Son DY, Boehm M, Karamloo F, Franke S, Hoffmann A et al. Cross-reactivity and epitope analysis of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen. Mol Immunol 1999;36: 155167.
  • 30
    Mirza O, Henriksen A, Ipsen H, Larsen JN, Wissenbach M, Spangfort MD et al. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity: complex formation between a Fab fragment of a monoclonal murine IgG antibody and the major allergen from birch pollen Bet v 1. J Immunol 2000;165: 331338.
  • 31
    Vieths S, Scheurer S, Ballmer-Weber B. Current understanding of cross-reactivity of food allergens and pollen. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;964: 4768.
  • 32
    Kazemi-Shirazi L, Niederberger V, Linhart B, Lidholm J, Kraft D, Valenta R. Recombinant marker allergens: diagnostic gatekeepers for the treatment of allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127: 259268.
  • 33
    Rihs HP, Chen Z, Rueff F, Petersen A, Rozynek P, Heimann H et al. IgE binding of the recombinant allergen soybean profilin (rGly m 3) is mediated by conformational epitopes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 12931301.
  • 34
    Fedorov AA, Ball T, Mahoney NM, Valenta R, Almo SC. The molecular basis for allergen cross-reactivity: crystal structure and IgE-epitope mapping of birch pollen profilin. Structure 1997;5: 3345.
  • 35
    Scheurer S, Wangorsch A, Haustein D, Vieths S. Cloning of the minor allergen Api g 4 profilin from celery (Apium graveolens) and its cross-reactivity with birch pollen profilin Bet v 2. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 962971.
  • 36
    Wensing M, Akkerdaas JH, van Leeuwen WA, Stapel SO, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Aalberse RC et al. IgE to Bet v 1 and profilin: cross-reactivity patterns and clinical relevance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110: 435442.
  • 37
    Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC. Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving antibody-binding epitopes. J Immunol 2002;168: 290297.
  • 38
    Tinghino R, Twardosz A, Barletta B, Puggioni EM, Iacovacci P, Butteroni C et al. Molecular, structural, and immunologic relationships between different families of recombinant calcium-binding pollen allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 314320.
  • 39
    Lombardero M, Obispo T, Calabozo B, Lezaun A, Polo F, Barber D. Cross-reactivity between olive and other species. Role of Ole e 1- related proteins. Allergy 2002;57: 2934.
  • 40
    Gonzalez E, Villalba M, Lombardero M, Aalbers M, van Ree R, Rodriguez R. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen. Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools. Mol Immunol 2002;39: 93101.
  • 41
    Batanero E, Crespo JF, Monsalve RI, Martin-Esteban M, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. IgE-binding and histamine-release capabilities of the main carbohydrate component isolated from the major allergen of olive tree pollen, Ole e 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 147153.
  • 42
    Krebitz M, Wagner B, Ferreira F, Peterbauer C, Campillo N, Witty M et al. Plant-based heterologous expression of Mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (Malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein. J Mol Biol 2003;329: 721730.
  • 43
    Andersson K, Lidholm J. Characteristics and immunobiology of grass pollen allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;130: 87107.
  • 44
    Niederberger V, Laffer S, Froschl R, Kraft D, Rumpold H, Kapiotis S et al. IgE antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101: 258264.
  • 45
    van Ree R, van Leeuwen WA, Aalberse RC. How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for grass pollen allergy?: a study with 17 whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant major allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102: 184190.
  • 46
    Ball T, Fuchs T, Kraft D, Valenta R. Lessons from the antibody recognition of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;118: 208209.
  • 47
    Flicker S, Vrtala S, Steinberger P, Vangelista L, Bufe A, Petersen A et al. A human monoclonal IgE antibody defines a highly allergenic fragment of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 5: molecular, immunological, and structural characterization of the epitope-containing domain. J Immunol 2000;165: 38493859.
  • 48
    Maglio O, Saldanha JW, Vrtala S, Spitzauer S, Valenta R, Pastore A. A major IgE epitope-containing grass pollen allergen domain from Phl p 5 folds as a four-helix bundle. Protein Eng 2002;15: 635642.
  • 49
    Suphioglu C, Blaher B, Rolland JM, McCluskey J, Schappi G, Kenrick J et al. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen. Mol Immunol 1998;35: 293305.
  • 50
    Swoboda I, de Weerd N, Bhalla PL, Niederberger V, Sperr WR, Valent P et al. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy. Eur J Immunol 2002;32: 270280.
  • 51
    Schramm G, Kahlert H, Suck R, Weber B, Stuwe HT, Muller WD et al. ‘‘Allergen engineering’’: variants of the timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 5b with reduced IgE-binding capacity but conserved T cell reactivity. J Immunol 1999;162: 24062414.
  • 52
    Rafnar T, Griffith IJ, Kuo MC, Bond JF, Rogers BL, Klapper DG. Cloning of Amb a I (antigen E), the major allergen family of short ragweed pollen. J Biol Chem 1991;266: 12291236.
  • 53
    Taniguchi Y, Ono A, Sawatani M, Nanba M, Kohno K, Usui M et al. Cry j I, a major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen, has pectate lyase enzyme activity. Allergy 1995;50: 9093.
  • 54
    Himly M, Jahn-Schmid B, Dedic A, Kelemen P, Wopfner N, Altmann F et al. Art v 1, the major allergen of mugwort pollen, is a modular glycoprotein with a defensin-like and a hydroxyproline-rich domain. FASEB J 2002;17: 106108.
  • 55
    Gupta N, Martin BM, Metcalfe DD, Rao PV. Identification of a novel hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein as the major allergen in Parthenium pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98: 903912.
  • 56
    Domon C, Evrard JL, Herdenberger F, Pillay DT, Steinmetz A. Nucleotide sequence of two anther-specific cDNAs from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant Mol Biol 1990;15: 643646.
  • 57
    Baldo BA, Baker RS. Inhalant allergies to fungi: reactions to bakers’ yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and identification of bakers’ yeast enolase as an important allergen. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;86: 201208.
  • 58
    Achatz G, Oberkofler H, Lechenauer E, Simon B, Unger A, Kandler D et al. Molecular cloning of major and minor allergens of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. Mol Immunol 1995;32: 213227.
  • 59
    Simon-Nobbe B, Probst G, Kajava AV, Oberkofler H, Susani M, Crameri R et al. IgE-binding epitopes of enolases, a class of highly conserved fungal allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 887895.
  • 60
    Lai HY, Tam MF, Tang RB, Chou H, Chang CY, Tsai JJ et al. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of a newly identified enolase allergen from Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus fumigatus. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127: 181190.
  • 61
    Chang CY, Chou H, Tam MF, Tang RB, Lai HY, Shen HD. Characterization of enolase allergen from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. J Biomed Sci 2002;9: 645655.
  • 62
    Verma J, Singh BP, Sridhara S, Gaur SN, Arora N. Purification and characterization of a cross-reactive 45-kD major allergen of Fusarium solani. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;130: 193199.
  • 63
    Wagner S, Breiteneder H, Simon-Nobbe B, Susani M, Krebitz M, Niggemann B et al. Hev b 9, an enolase and a new cross-reactive allergen from Hevea latex and molds purification, characterization, cloning and expression. Eur J Biochem 2000;267: 70067014.
  • 64
    Mari A, Schneider P, Wally V, Breitenbach M, Simon-Nobbe B. Sensitisation to fungi: epidemiology, comparative skin tests and IgE reactivity of fungal extracts. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33: 14291438.
  • 65
    Fluckiger S, Scapozza L, Mayer C, Blaser K, Folkers G, Crameri R. Immunological and structural analysis of IgE-mediated cross-reactivity between manganese superoxide dismutases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128: 292303.
  • 66
    Wagner S, Sowka S, Mayer C, Crameri R, Focke M, Kurup VP et al. Identification of a Hevea brasiliensis latex manganese superoxide dismutase (Hev b 10) as a cross-reactive allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;125: 120127.
  • 67
    Chye ML, Cheung KY. β-1,3-Glucanase is highly-expressed in laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. Plant Mol Biol 1995;29: 397402.
  • 68
    Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Hamid S, Ward MA, Yeang HY, Cardosa MJ et al. Latex B-serum β-1,3-glucanase (Hev b II) and a component of the microhelix (Hev b IV) are major latex allergens. J Nat Rubber Res 1995;10: 8299.
  • 69
    Wagner S, Breiteneder H. The latex-fruit syndrome. Biochem Soc Trans 2002;30: 935940.
  • 70
    Sussman GL, Beezhold DH, Kurup VP. Allergens and natural rubber proteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110: S033-S039.
  • 71
    Yagami T, Sato M, Nakamura A, Komiyama T, Kitagawa K, Akasawa A et al. Plant defense-related enzymes as latex antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101: 379385.
  • 72
    Sowka S, Hsieh LS, Krebitz M, Akasawa A, Martin BM, Starrett D et al. Identification and cloning of Prs a 1, a 32-kDa endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. J Biol Chem 1998;273: 28 09128 097.
  • 73
    Karisola P, Alenius H, Mikkola J, Kalkkinen N, Helin J, Pentikainen OT et al. The major conformational IgE-binding epitopes of hevein (Hev b 6.02) are identified by a novel chimera-based allergen epitope mapping strategy. J Biol Chem 2002;277: 22 65622 661.
  • 74
    van Ree R. Clinical importance of non-specific lipid transfer proteins as food allergens. Biochem Soc Trans 2002;30: 910913.
  • 75
    Colombo P, Kennedy D, Ramsdale T, Costa MA, Duro G, Izzo V et al. Identification of an immunodominant IgE epitope of the Parietaria judaica major allergen. J Immunol 1998;160: 27802785.
  • 76
    Gall H, Kalveram KJ, Forck G, Sterry W. Kiwi fruit allergy: a new birch pollen-associated food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94: 7076.
  • 77
    Diez-Gomez ML, Quirce S, Aragoneses E, Cuevas M. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;80: 2430.
  • 78
    Pastorello EA, Conti A, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Rivolta F, Ansaloni R et al. Identification of actinidin as the major allergen of kiwi fruit. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101: 531537.
  • 79
    Cambra O, Berrens L. Monoclonal antibodies against Dermatophagoides group I allergens as pseudo-cystatins blocking the catalytic site of cysteine proteinases. Immunol Lett 1996;50: 173177.
  • 80
    Robotham JM, Teuber SS, Sathe SK, Roux KH. Linear IgE epitope mapping of the English walnut (Juglans regia) major food allergen, Jug r 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 143149.
  • 81
    Burks AW, Shin D, Cockrell G, Stanley JS, Helm RM, Bannon GA. Mapping and mutational analysis of the IgE-binding epitopes on Ara h 1, a legume vicilin protein and a major allergen in peanut hypersensitivity. Eur J Biochem 1997;245: 334339.
  • 82
    Beardslee TA, Zeece MG, Sarath G, Markwell JP. Soybean glycinin G1 acidic chain shares IgE epitopes with peanut allergen Ara h 3. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;123: 299307.
  • 83
    Poulsen LK, Hansen TK, Norgaard A, Vestergaard H, Stahl SP, Bindslev-Jensen C. Allergens from fish and egg. Allergy 2001;56: 3942.
  • 84
    Langeland T. A clinical and immunological study of allergy to hen's egg white. VI. Occurrence of proteins cross-reacting with allergens in hen's egg white as studied in egg white from turkey, duck, goose, seagull, and in hen egg yolk, and hen and chicken sera and flesh. Allergy 1983;38: 399412.
  • 85
    Szepfalusi Z, Ebner C, Pandjaitan R, Orlicek F, Scheiner O, Boltz-Nitulescu G et al. Egg yolk alpha-livetin (chicken serum albumin) is a cross-reactive allergen in the bird-egg syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93: 932942.
  • 86
    Bausela BA, Garcia-Ara MC, Martin EM, Boyano Martinez TB, Diaz Pena JM, Ojeda Casas JA. Peculiarities of egg allergy in children with bird protein sensitization. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78: 213216.
  • 87
    Kelso JM, Cockrell GE, Helm RM, Burks AW. Common allergens in avian meats. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 202204.
  • 88
    Cahen YD, Fritsch R, Wuthrich B. Food allergy with monovalent sensitivity to poultry meat. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 10261030.
  • 89
    Wal JM. Cow's milk proteins/allergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;89: 310.
  • 90
    Spuergin P, Walter M, Schiltz E, Deichmann K, Forster J, Mueller H. Allergenicity of α-caseins from cow, sheep, and goat. Allergy 1997;52: 293298.
  • 91
    Restani P, Gaiaschi A, Plebani A, Beretta B, Cavagni G, Fiocchi A et al. Cross-reactivity between milk proteins from different animal species. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 9971004.
  • 92
    Businco L, Giampietro PG, Lucenti P, Lucaroni F, Pini C, Di Felice G et al. Allergenicity of mare's milk in children with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105: 10311034.
  • 93
    Thomas WR, Smith WA, Hales BJ, Mills KL, O'Brien RM. Characterization and immunobiology of house dust mite allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129: 118.
  • 94
    Sidenius KE, Hallas TE, Poulsen LK, Mosbech H. Allergen cross-reactivity between house-dust mites and other invertebrates. Allergy 2001;56: 723733.
  • 95
    Cheong N, Yang L, Lee BW, Chua KY. Cloning of a group 3 allergen from Blomia tropicalis mites. Allergy 2003;58: 352356.
  • 96
    Smith WA, Hales BJ, Jarnicki AG, Thomas WR. Allergens of wild house dust mites: environmental Der p 1 and Der p 2 sequence polymorphisms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107: 985992.
  • 97
    Ayuso R, Reese G, Leong-Kee S, Plante M, Lehrer SB. Molecular basis of arthropod cross-reactivity: IgE-binding cross-reactive epitopes of shrimp, house dust mite and cockroach tropomyosins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129: 3848.
  • 98
    van Ree R, Antonicelli L, Akkerdaas JH, Garritani MS, Aalberse RC, Bonifazi F. Possible induction of food allergy during mite immunotherapy. Allergy 1996;51: 108113.
  • 99
    Bugajska-Schretter A, Elfman L, Fuchs T, Kapiotis S, Rumpold H, Valenta R et al. Parvalbumin, a cross-reactive fish allergen, contains IgE-binding epitopes sensitive to periodate treatment and Ca2+ depletion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101: 6774.
  • 100
    Swoboda I, Bugajska-Schretter A, Verdino P, Keller W, Sperr WR, Valent P et al. Recombinant carp parvalbumin, the major cross-reactive fish allergen: a tool for diagnosis and therapy of fish allergy. J Immunol 2002;168: 45764584.
  • 101
    Muller UR. Recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens. Allergy 2002;57: 570576.
  • 102
    Hoffman DR. Allergens in Hymenoptera venom. XVI: Studies of the structures and cross-reactivities of vespid venom phospholipases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;78: 337343.
  • 103
    Lu G, Kochoumian L, King TP. Sequence identity and antigenic cross-reactivity of white face hornet venom allergen, also a hyaluronidase, with other proteins. J Biol Chem 1995;270: 44574465.
  • 104
    King TP, Lu G, Gonzalez M, Qian N, Soldatova L. Yellow jacket venom allergens, hyaluronidase and phospholipase: sequence similarity and antigenic cross-reactivity with their hornet and wasp homologs and possible implications for clinical allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98: 588600.
  • 105
    Henriksen A, King TP, Mirza O, Monsalve RI, Meno K, Ipsen H et al. Major venom allergen of yellow jackets, Ves v 5: Structural characterization of a pathogenesis-related protein superfamily. Proteins 2001;45: 438448.
  • 106
    van Ree R. Carbohydrate epitopes and their relevance for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129: 189197.
  • 107
    Wilson IB, Harthill JE, Mullin NP, Ashford DA, Altmann F. Core α1,3-fucose is a key part of the epitope recognized by antibodies reacting against plant N-linked oligosaccharides and is present in a wide variety of plant extracts. Glycobiology 1998;8: 651661.
  • 108
    Mari A. IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: analysis of the distribution and appraisal of the in vivo and in vitro reactivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;129: 286295.
  • 109
    van Ree R, Cabanes-Macheteau M, Akkerdaas J, Milazzo JP, Loutelier-Bourhis C, Rayon C et al. β(1,2)-xylose and α(1,3)-fucose residues have a strong contribution in IgE binding to plant glycoallergens. J Biol Chem 2000;275: 11 45111 458.
  • 110
    Batanero E, Villalba M, Monsalve RI, Rodriguez R. Cross-reactivity between the major allergen from olive pollen and unrelated glycoproteins: evidence of an epitope in the glycan moiety of the allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97: 12641271.
  • 111
    Iacovacci P, Pini C, Afferni C, Barletta B, Tinghino R, Schinina E et al. A monoclonal antibody specific for a carbohydrate epitope recognizes an IgE-binding determinant shared by taxonomically unrelated allergenic pollens. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 458465.
  • 112
    Mari A, Iacovacci P, Afferni C, Barletta B, Tinghino R, Di Felice G et al. Specific IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the in vitro diagnosis of allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 10051011.
  • 113
    Van Der Veen MJ, van Ree R, Aalberse RC, Akkerdaas J, Koppelman SJ, Jansen HM et al. Poor biologic activity of cross-reactive IgE directed to carbohydrate determinants of glycoproteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100: 327334.
  • 114
    Bublin M, Radauer C, Wilson IBH, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H et al. Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5, a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery, are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients. FASEB J 2003.
  • 115
    Foetisch K, Westphal S, Lauer I, Retzek M, Altmann F, Kolarich D et al. Biological activity of IgE specific for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111: 889896.
  • 116
    Brusic V, Petrovsky N. Bioinformatics for characterisation of allergens, allergenicity and allergic crossreactivity. Trends Immunol 2003;24: 225228.
  • 117
    Gendel SM. Sequence databases for assessing the potential allergenicity of proteins used in transgenic foods. Adv Food Nutr Res 1998;42: 6392.
  • 118
    Kleter GA, Peijnenburg AA. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE-binding linear epitopes of allergens. BMC Struct Biol 2002;2: 8.
  • 119
    Gendel SM. Sequence analysis for assessing potential allergenicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;964: 8798.
  • 120
    Zorzet A, Gustafsson M, Hammerling U. Prediction of food protein allergenicity: a bioinformatic learning systems approach. In Silico Biol 2002;2.
  • 121
    Hileman RE, Silvanovich A, Goodman RE, Rice EA, Holleschak G, Astwood JD et al. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128: 280291.
  • 122
    Ivanciuc O, Schein CH, Braun W. SDAP: database and computational tools for allergenic proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 2003;31: 359362.
  • 123
    Stadler MB, Stadler BM. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J 2003;17: 11411143.
  • 124
    Ivanciuc O, Schein CH, Braun W. Data mining of sequences and 3D structures of allergenic proteins. Bioinformatics 2002;18: 13581364.
  • 125
    Furmonaviciene R, Shakib F. The molecular basis of allergenicity: comparative analysis of the three dimensional structures of diverse allergens reveals a common structural motif. Mol Pathol 2001;54: 155159.
  • 126
    Ortolani C, Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Ispano M, Pravettoni V, Berti C et al. IgE-mediated allergy from vegetable allergens. Ann Allergy 1993;71: 470476.
  • 127
    Asero R. Detection and clinical characterization of patients with oral allergy syndrome caused by stable allergens in Rosaceae and nuts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83: 377383.
  • 128
    Reekers R, Busche M, Wittmann M, Kapp A, Werfel T. Birch pollen-related foods trigger atopic dermatitis in patients with specific cutaneous T-cell responses to birch pollen antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 466472.
  • 129
    M'Raihi L, Charpin D, Pons A, Bongrand P, Vervloet D. Allergie croisée entre latex et banane. Rev Fr Allergol 1989;29: 187189.
  • 130
    Barnett D, Bonham B, Howden ME. Allergenic cross-reactions among legume foods – an in vitro study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;79: 433438.
  • 131
    Bernhisel-Broadbent J, Sampson HA. Cross-allergenicity in the legume botanical family in children with food hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83: 435440.
  • 132
    Sicherer SH, Sampson HA, Burks AW. Peanut and soy allergy: a clinical and therapeutic dilemma. Allergy 2000;55: 515521.
  • 133
    Maleki S, Viquez O, Jacks T, Dodo H, Champagne ET, Chung SY et al. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, functions as a trypsin inhibitor, and roasting enhances this function. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 190195.
  • 134
    Bousquet J, Bjorksten B, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Huggett A, Ortolani C, Warner JO et al. Scientific criteria and the selection of allergenic foods for product labelling. Allergy 1998;53: 321.
  • 135
    Fleischer DM, Conover-Walker MK, Christie L, Burks AW, Wood RA. The natural progression of peanut allergy: resolution and the possibility of recurrence. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 183189.
  • 136
    Sampson HA. Peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2002;346: 12941299.
  • 137
    Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Burks AW, Sampson HA. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the US determined by a random digit dial telephone survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 559562.
  • 138
    Leung DY, Sampson HA, Yunginger JW, Burks AW Jr, Schneider LC, Wortel CH et al. Effect of anti-IgE therapy in patients with peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2003;348: 986993.
  • 139
    Li XM, Srivastava K, Grishin A, Huang CK, Schofield B, Burks W et al. Persistent protective effect of heatkilled Escherichia coli producing ‘‘engineered,’’ recombinant peanut proteins in a murine model of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 159167.
  • 140
    Hansen KS, Ballmer-Weber BK, Luttkopf D, Skov PS, Wuthrich B, Bindslev-Jensen C et al. Roasted hazelnuts – allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Allergy 2003;58: 132138.
  • 141
    Bellioni-Businco B, Paganelli R, Lucenti P, Giampietro PG, Perborn H, Businco L. Allergenicity of goat's milk in children with cow's milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 11911194.
  • 142
    Werfel SJ, Cooke SK, Sampson HA. Clinical reactivity to beef in children allergic to cow's milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: 293300.
  • 143
    Fiocchi A, Restani P, Riva E, Mirri GP, Santini I, Bernardo L et al. Heat treatment modifies the allergenicity of beef and bovine serum albumin. Allergy 1998;53: 798802.
  • 144
    Fanta C, Ebner C. Allergy to mare's milk. Allergy 1998;53: 539540.
  • 145
    Szepfalusi Z, Ebner C, Urbanek R, Ebner H, Scheiner O, Boltz-Nitulescu G et al. Detection of IgE antibodies specific for allergens in cow milk and cow dander: milk-dander syndrome. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1993;102: 288294.
  • 146
    Drouet M, Sabbah A. The pork/cat syndrome or crossed reactivity between cat epithelia and pork meat. Monogr Allergy 1996;32: 164173.
  • 147
    Anibarro B, Seoane FJ, Vila C, Lombardero M. Allergy to eggs from duck and goose without sensitization to hen egg proteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105: 834836.
  • 148
    Bock SA, Sampson HA, Atkins FM, Zeiger RS, Lehrer S, Sachs M et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) as an office procedure: a manual. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82: 986997.
  • 149
    Mandallaz MM, De Weck AL, Dahinden CA. Bird-egg syndrome. Cross-reactivity between bird antigens and egg-yolk livetins in IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;87: 143150.
  • 150
    de Maat-Bleeker F, van Dijk AG, Berrens L. Allergy to egg yolk possibly induced by sensitization to bird serum antigens. Ann Allergy 1985;54: 245248.
  • 151
    Wyss M, Huwyler T, Wuthrich B. ,,Bird-egg“ und ,,egg-bird syndrome”. Kreuzsensibilisierung zwischen inhalativen und ingestiven Vogelproteinen. In WüthrichB, editor. Nahrungsmittel und Allergie. München: Dustri 1996;218225.
  • 152
    Jones SM, Magnolfi CF, Cooke SK, Sampson HA. Immunologic cross-reactivity among cereal grains and grasses in children with food hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96: 341351.
  • 153
    Armentia A, Banuelos C, Arranz ML, Del V, Martin-Santos JM, Gil FJ et al. Early introduction of cereals into children's diets as a risk-factor for grass pollen asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 12501255.
  • 154
    Erben AM, Rodriguez JL, McCullough J, Ownby DR. Anaphylaxis after ingestion of beignets contaminated with Dermatophagoides farinae. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;92: 846849.
  • 155
    Matsumoto T, Goto Y, Mike T. Anaphylaxis to mite-contaminated flour. Allergy 2001;56: 247.
  • 156
    Bernhisel-Broadbent J, Strause D, Sampson HA. Fish hypersensitivity. II: Clinical relevance of altered fish allergenicity caused by various preparation methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90: 622629.
  • 157
    Valdivieso R, Subiza J, Varela-Losada S, Subiza JL, Narganes MJ, Martinez-Cocera C et al. Bronchial asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact dermatitis caused by onion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94: 928930.
  • 158
    Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De La HF. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100: 734738.
  • 159
    Perez-Pimiento AJ, Moneo I, Santaolalla M, de Paz S, Fernandez-Parra B, Dominguez-Lazaro AR. Anaphylactic reaction to young garlic. Allergy 1999;54: 626629.
  • 160
    Arena A, Cislaghi C, Falagiani P. Anaphylactic reaction to the ingestion of raw onion. A case report. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2000;28: 287289.
  • 161
    Cadot P, Tits G, Bussels L, Ceuppens JL. Asthma and hand dermatitis to leek. Allergy 2001;56: 192193.
  • 162
    Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S. A case of onion allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: 309310.
  • 163
    Perez-Calderon R, Gonzalo-Garijo MA, Fernandez DS. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis to onion. Allergy 2002;57: 752753.
  • 164
    Pires G, Pargana E, Loureiro V, Almeida MM, Pinto JR. Allergy to garlic. Allergy 2002;57: 957958.
  • 165
    Sanchez-Hernandez MC, Hernandez M, Delgado J, Guardia P, Monteseirin J, Bartolome B et al. Allergenic cross-reactivity in the Liliaceae family. Allergy 2000;55: 297299.
  • 166
    Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Welch JA, Newman Taylor AJ. Investigation of possible adverse allergic reactions to mycoprotein (‘Quorn’). Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23: 257260.
  • 167
    Dauby PA, Whisman BA, Hagan L. Cross-reactivity between raw mushroom and molds in a patient with oral allergy syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;89: 319321.
  • 168
    Van Durme P, Ceuppens JL, Cadot P. Allergy to ingested mycoprotein in a patient with mold spore inhalant allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 452454.
  • 169
    Herrera I, Moneo I, Caballero ML, de Paz S, Perez PA, Rebollo S. Food allergy to spinach and mushroom. Allergy 2002;57: 261262.
  • 170
    Sampson HA. Utility of food-specific IgE concentrations in predicting symptomatic food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107: 891896.
  • 171
    Niggemann B, Reibel S, Wahn U. The atopy patch test (APT) – a useful tool for the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 2000;55: 281285.
  • 172
    Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Demoly P, Crameri R, Breiteneder H, Ebner C, Laimer Da Camara MM et al. IgE reactivity to Api g 1, a major celery allergen, in a Central European population is based on primary sensitization by Bet v1. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 478484.
  • 173
    Ballmer-Weber BK, Scheurer S, Fritsche P, Enrique E, Cistero-Bahima A, Haase T et al. Component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant allergens in patients with cherry allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110: 167173.
  • 174
    Loveless MH. Milk allergy: a survey of its incidence; experiments with a masked ingestion test for its diagnosis. J Allergy 1950;21: 500509.
  • 175
    Sampson HA. Food allergy. Part 2: diagnosis and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 981989.
  • 176
    Sampson HA, Ho DG. Relationship between food-specific IgE concentrations and the risk of positive food challenges in children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100: 444451.
  • 177
    Sporik R, Hill DJ, Hosking CS. Specificity of allergen skin testing in predicting positive open food challenges to milk, egg and peanut in children. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 15401546.
  • 178
    Rance F, Abbal M, Lauwers-Cances V. Improved screening for peanut allergy by the combined use of skin prick tests and specific IgE assays. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 10271033.
  • 179
    Monti G, Muratore MC, Peltran A, Bonfante G, Silvestro L, Oggero R et al. High incidence of adverse reactions to egg challenge on first known exposure in young atopic dermatitis children: predictive value of skin prick test and radioallergosorbent test to egg proteins. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32: 15151519.
  • 180
    Boyano-Martinez T, Garcia-Ara C, Diaz-Pena JM, Munoz FM, Garcia SG, Esteban MM. Validity of specific IgE antibodies in children with egg allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 14641469.
  • 181
    Barkholt V, Jorgensen PB, Sorensen D, Bahrenscheer J, Haikara A, Lemola E et al. Protein modification by fermentation: effect of fermentation on the potential allergenicity of pea. Allergy 1998;53: 106108.
  • 182
    Matsumoto T. Mitigation of the action of wheat allergen by acidic oxidative potential water. Allergy 2002;57: 926930.
  • 183
    Fernandez-Rivas M, Cuevas M. Peels of Rosaceae fruits have a higher allergenicity than pulps. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 12391247.
  • 184
    Ballmer-Weber BK, Hoffmann A, Wuthrich B, Luttkopf D, Pompei C, Wangorsch A et al. Influence of food processing on the allergenicity of celery: DBPCFC with celery spice and cooked celery in patients with celery allergy. Allergy 2002;57: 228235.
  • 185
    De Swert LF, Cadot P, Ceuppens JL. Allergy to cooked white potatoes in infants and young children: a cause of severe, chronic allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110: 524529.
  • 186
    Ibanez SD, Martinez SI, Maranon LF, Fernandez-Caldas E, Alonso LE, Laso BT. Specific IgE determinations to crude and boiled lentil (Lens culinaris) extracts in lentil-sensitive children and controls. Allergy 1999;54: 12091214.
  • 187
    Steinman HA. ‘‘Hidden’’ allergens in foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98: 241250.
  • 188
    Vadas P, Perelman B. Activated charcoal forms non-IgE binding complexes with peanut proteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112: 175179.
  • 189
    Asero R. Effects of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy on apple allergy in birch pollen-hypersensitive patients. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 13681373.
  • 190
    Kelso JM, Jones RT, Tellez R, Yunginger JW. Oral allergy syndrome successfully treated with pollen immunotherapy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;74: 391396.
  • 191
    Herrmann D, Henzgen M, Frank E, Rudeschko O, Jager L. Effect of hyposensitization for tree pollinosis on associated apple allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1995;5: 259267.
  • 192
    Modrzynski M, Zawisza E, Rapiejko P, Przybylski G. Specific-pollen immunotherapy in the treatment of oral allergy syndrome in patients with tree pollen hypersensitivity. Przegl Lek 2002;59: 10071010.
  • 193
    Henzgen M, Schlenvoigt G, Diener C, Jager L. Nahrungsmittelallergie bei Frühblüherpollinosis und deren Beeinflussung mittels Hyposensibilisierung. Allergologie 1991;14: 9094.
  • 194
    Asero R. How long does the effect of birch pollen injection SIT on apple allergy last? Allergy 2003;58: 435438.
  • 195
    Moller C. Effect of pollen immunotherapy on food hypersensitivity in children with birch pollinosis. Ann Allergy 1989;62: 343345.
  • 196
    Asero R. Fennel, cucumber, and melon allergy successfully treated with pollen- specific injection immunotherapy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84: 460462.
  • 197
    de Maat-Bleeker F, Akkerdaas JH, van Ree R, Aalberse RC. Vineyard snail allergy possibly induced by sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). Allergy 1995;50: 438440.
  • 198
    Peroni DG, Piacentini GL, Bodini A, Boner AL. Snail anaphylaxis during house dust mite immunotherapy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000;11: 260261.
  • 199
    Pajno GB, La Grutta S, Barberio G, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. Harmful effect of immunotherapy in children with combined snail and mite allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 627629.
  • 200
    Meglio P, Plantamura M, Arabito E, Falagiani P, Torre A, Rossi P. Does SIT to Der p protect from snail sensitization? Allergy 2002;57: 868869.
  • 201
    Lombardi C, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. Sublingual IT in OAS. Allergy 2000;55: 677678.
  • 202
    Mempel M, Rakoski J, Ring J, Ollert M. Severe anaphylaxis to kiwi fruit: immunologic changes related to successful sublingual allergen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111: 14061409.
  • 203
    Rueff F, Eberlein-Konig B, Przybilla B. Oral hyposensitization with celery juice. Allergy 2001;56: 8283.
  • 204
    Patriarca G, Schiavino D, Nucera E, Schinco G, Milani A, Gasbarrini G. Food allergy in children: results of a standardized protocol for oral desensitization. Hepatogastroenterology 1998;45: 5258.
  • 205
    Wuthrich B, Hofer T. Food allergies. III. Therapy: elimination diet, symptomatic drug prophylaxis and specific hyposensitization. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1986;116: 14011410.
  • 206
    Bauer A, Ekanayake MS, Wigger-Alberti W, Elsner P. Oral rush desensitization to milk. Allergy 1999;54: 894895.
  • 207
    Nelson HS, Lahr J, Rule R, Bock A, Leung D. Treatment of anaphylactic sensitivity to peanuts by immunotherapy with injections of aqueous peanut extract. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: 744751.
  • 208
    Sampson HA. Immunological approaches to the treatment of food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2001;12(Suppl. 14):9196.
  • 209
    MacDougall CF, Cant AJ, Colver AF. How dangerous is food allergy in childhood? The incidence of severe and fatal allergic reactions across the UK and Ireland. Arch Dis Child 2002;86: 236239.
  • 210
    Warner JO. How dangerous is food allergy in childhood? Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002;13: 149150.
  • 211
    Gold MS. EpiPen epidemic or good clinical practice? J Paediatr Child Health 2003;39: 376377.
  • 212
    Unsworth DJ. Adrenaline syringes are vastly over prescribed. Arch Dis Child 2001;84: 410411.
  • 213
    Hourihane J. Controversies in paediatrics? Arch Dis Child 2001;85: 510.
  • 214
    Kemp A. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy. J Paediatr Child Health 2003;39: 372375.
  • 215
    Hallett R, Haapanen LA, Teuber SS. Food allergies and kissing. N Engl J Med 2002;346: 18331834.
  • 216
    Lepp U, Zabel P, Schocker F. Playing cards as a carrier for peanut allergens. Allergy 2002;57: 864.
  • 217
    Pumphrey RS, Nicholls JM. Epinephrine-resistant food anaphylaxis. Lancet 2000;355: 1099.
  • 218
    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Kanny G, Morisset M, Flabbee J, Guenard L, Beaudouin E et al. Food anaphylaxis in schools: evaluation of the management plan and the efficiency of the emergency kit. Allergy 2001;56: 10711076.
  • 219
    Gold MS, Sainsbury R. First aid anaphylaxis management in children who were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector device (EpiPen). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 171176.