Objectives: To determine if the classification of ‘antidepressant-induced hypomania’ in DSM-IV is supported by available data.
Methods: We reviewed the available scientific literature to examine the incidence of mania and hypomania in non-bipolar patients who were treated with antidepressants.
Results: Eighty-nine per cent of studies of antidepressants in major depressive disorder patients reported no cases of treatment-induced hypomania. No instances of treatment-induced hypomania were reported in three large studies of patients with chronic forms of depression.
Conclusions: The rate of antidepressant-induced hypomania in major depressive disorder is within the rate of misdiagnosis of bipolar depression as unipolar. Depressed patients who experience antidepressant-associated hypomania are truly bipolar.